ICETE 2004 Abstracts


Area 1 - Global Communication Information Systems and Services

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 46
Title:

EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN USERS AND CUSTOM-MADE SOFTWARE PRODUCTS

Authors:

Daniel De Souza and Simone Silva

Abstract: In this work, we will develop a methodology based on the quality of the interaction between users and custom-made software products, aiming at the determination of the degree of users’ satisfaction, that is, the usability. This approach is divided into four parts: First we will define the criterions to be used in the evaluation of the quality of software products. After these criterions have been chosen, an approach will be developed to classify them by their level of importance related to a selected area of application. The level of importance of a usability criterion will vary depending on the area of application. As a next step, a second approach will be introduced to classify usability criterions by the quality level presented by a certain software product utilized in a selected area. This classification is based on the users’ opinion about the quality level a certain usability criterion related to the above software product would have. Finally a third and final approach will be set up to evaluate the usability of software products according to users’ judgment. It combines the first method with the second method in such a way as to define a usability factor that will be used to evaluate the quality of the selected software product. This proposed methodology can be applied to a finished software product to evaluate its usability according to users’ judgment, and can be also applied during the development of the product to ensure it will have the desired usability attributes. In a future work, we will show an application of this methodology in the evaluation of the usability of software products in Brazil.
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Paper Nr: 98
Title:

IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF EQUALIZATION AND A FAST START-UP TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Authors:

Hua Ye, Hua Ye and Wanlei Zhou

Abstract: This paper explores the potential of several popular equalization techniques and proposes new approaches to overcome their disadvantages. Such as the conventional least-mean-square (LMS ) algorithm, the recursive least-squares ( RLS ) algorithm, the filtered-X LMS algorithm and their development. An H2 optimal initialization has been proposed to overcome the slow convergence problem while keeping the simplicity algorithms. The effectiveness of the methods proposed in this paper has been verified.
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Paper Nr: 119
Title:

FESORIA - An integrated tool for performance and content analysis, SLA evaluation, management and smart presentation for video-on-demand services

Authors:

Xabiel García Pañeda, Isabel Rodriguez, Manuel Vilas, Roberto García, David Melendi Palacio and Ricardo Bonis

Abstract: This paper presents an integrated tool for performance and content analysis, management, SLA evaluation and smart presentation for video-on-demand services. The improvement in the users’ access lines has originated the appearance of several video-on-demand services. Due to the elevated resources consumption of this kind of services, it is extremely important to obtain a high-quality configuration, which is compulsorily based on the realization of reliable behavioural analyses. In recent years, some specific tools for video-on-demand analysis have appeared. They obtain their data from servers and proxies log files. However, to achieve accurate analyses, further information is necessary, for instance, video metadata or resources consumption statistics. Fesoria is a tool which combines the analysis of log information gathered from the streaming servers and proxies, with other data provided by both the content and the ISP managers. All this information is analyzed in order to generate reports about the service performance and evolution, and the users’ preferences. In addition, the results of these analyses are also employed to establish an intelligent presentation of contents for the users of the service.
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Paper Nr: 120
Title:

MODELLING PROCEDURE TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY IN FIBER BROADBAND ACCESS NETWORKS - Aggregating traffic streams in a cable network

Authors:

Roberto García, Xabiel García Pañeda and Jesús Pérez

Abstract: This paper provides a strategy to create accurate and complete models of cable networks for voice and data transmission. Also, a model of the traffic generated in a fiber broadband access network is implemented, representing the use that network subscribers make of the system. Traffic models are essential for the performance evaluation of telecommunications networks. Broadband access networks need an accurate estimation to guarantee an acceptable Quality of Service (QoS) level to the subscribers. Therefore, traffic models need to be accurate and able to represent the statistical characteristics of the real traffic. The simulation of great networks with high traffic volumes requires the establishment of an analysis methodology to increase the efficiency in the simulator resources consumption, in order to minimize the simulation run time and the memory consumption without loss of precision in the results. The model developed uses the number of subscribers assigned to each return channel. The traffic in each return channel is obtained from the aggregation of the separated traffic streams originated by the user’s applications executed. The results obtained in these processes can be validated using the real data provided by a fiber cable operator. For the accomplishment of the model, the OPNET simulation language has been used. The results have been exported to MATLAB, which permits the execution of all types of statistical analyses, with the aim of both making the verification of the results and the validation of the developed model.
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Paper Nr: 124
Title:

A DECENTRALIZED LOCATION SERVICE - Applying P2P technology for picking replicas on replicated services

Authors:

Luis Bernardo and Paulo Pinto

Abstract: Scalable Internet services are based on sets of peer application servers. A decentralized location service is used to resolve human readable application identifiers and return the nearest application server reference. This paper evaluates several services and algorithms from the Internet, grid and peer-to-peer community services. It identifies two potential problems and proposes a new approach for handling them. Existing techniques structure the overlay networks using tree structures. The proposed service enhances the structure with meshed structures at each level, creating dynamically multiple paths to enhance scalability. We present a study and simulation results on one aspect of scalability – sudden load of requests from users. Our service adapts to the load reaching a stable stage and performing resolution requests before a certain time limit.
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Paper Nr: 141
Title:

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN AN ELECTRONIC ECONOMY

Authors:

Anthony Atkins and Anthony Marsh

Abstract: In the last few years Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has been the subject of considerable interest in the business world. This has sometimes resulted in exaggerated claims about the benefits on offer to organisations. This paper provides an insight to the underlying concepts of CRM, the technological changes, and the impact to the organisational structure, its processes and the three main business divisions relied upon to deliver customer intimacy – specifically, Customer Service, Marketing and Sales. The paper highlights examples where CRM initiatives have been implemented for cost savings, profitability growth and a competitive advantage. The paper also outlines how many organisations are seeking to realign and empower the lower ranks of the business to nurture and harvest one-to-one customer relationships. The paper indicates that organisations need to review business operations in order to meet the challenges of delivering customer focus and outlines a framework as a planning tool to utilise CRM technology.
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Paper Nr: 162
Title:

ENABLING SECURE EBUSINESS BASED TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT - a new Paradigm beyond TMN

Authors:

Frank Birch and Masayoshi Ejiri

Abstract: With the emergence of eBusiness within the Telecoms sector, there is a growing need to reformulate our existing understanding of the nature of the industry so as to provide an adequate basis for the development and deployment of the necessary support infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to identify what some of the core issues are if this transition is to be performed and to indicate some of the changes that are needed if they are to be satisfactorily resolved. The paper argues that the established functional architecture provided by the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN), although useful for the Telecoms industry, is no longer sufficient. Proposals are made for improved architectures and frameworks that are based in part on lessons learnt from examining the nature of established service-based industries. Their structure implies that there is a need to emphasise process groupings that are dedicated to service integration. It is suggested that a key issue within this revised framework will be the delivery of content, and it is shown how recognition of this can provide the basis for a richer variety of secure and high-value added services. The paper concludes by identifying further work that needs to be undertaken.
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Paper Nr: 176
Title:

E-MACSC: A NOVEL DYNAMIC CACHE TUNING TECHNIQUE TO MAINTAIN THE HIT RATIO PRESCRIBED BY THE USER IN INTERNET APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Richard, S. Wu, Kang A. Wong and Tharam Dillon

Abstract: The E-MACSC (Enhanced Model for Adaptive Cache Size Control) is a novel approach for dynamic cache tuning. The aim is to adaptively tune the cache size at runtime to maintain the prescribed hit ratio. It works with the popularity ratio (PR), defined by the standard deviations sampled for the relative popularity profile of the data objects at two successive time points. The changes in the PR value reflect the shifts of users’ preference toward certain data objects. The E-MACSC makes use of the Convergence Algorithm (CA), which is an IEPM (Internet End-to-End Performance Measurement) technique that measures the mean of a waveform quickly and accurately. Accuracy of the measurement is independent/insensitive to the waveform pattern because the CA is derived from the Central Limit Theorem.
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Paper Nr: 178
Title:

PROTECTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS FROM UNICODE

Authors:

Erik Wilde

Abstract: While XML-based Web Service architectures are successfully turning the Web into an infrastructure for cooperating applications, not all problems with respect to interoperability problems have yet been solved. XML-based data exchange has the ability to carry the full Unicode character repertoire, which is approaching 100'000 characters. Many legacy application are being Web-Service-enabled rather than being re-built from scratch, and therefore still have the same limitations. A frequently seen limitation is the inability to handle the full Unicode character repertoire. We describe an architectural approach and a schema language to address this issue. The architectural approach proposes to establish validation as basic Web Service functionality, which should be built into a Web Services architecture rather than applications. Based on this vision of modular an infrastructure-based validation, we propose a schema language for character repertoire validation. Lessons learned from the first implementation and possible improvements of the schema language conclude the paper.
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Paper Nr: 193
Title:

EFFICIENT INFORMATION RETRIEVAL FROM HANDHELD TERMINALS WITH WIRELESS DIGITAL PHONE INTERFACE - Personalized information access on mobile phones and PDAs

Authors:

Hans Weghorn

Abstract: Currently, the success of data services used through digital mobile phone networks is very limited. Different reasons can be identified for this: At first, the costs for data connections through these wireless networks are extremely high. Secondly, the user handling of the physically constrained handheld terminals appears as very uncomfortable. Here, a concept for customer-centred information services is proposed, which meets the limited capabilities of the terminal devices. An adequate UI is presumed to make the use of data services on mobile digital phones as also on PDAs more convenient. Furthermore, the information access speed is increased and the costs for the information retrieval are reduced by the described concept.
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Paper Nr: 208
Title:

EFFICIENT PROXY SERVER CACHING USING WEB USAGE MINING TECHNIQUE ON WEB LOGS - For Improving Hit Rate And Response Time

Authors:

Sanjay Silakari, Ashwini K. Ramani and Parul Saxena

Abstract: This paper presents a vertical application of web usage mining: efficient web caching for improving the response time , for the internet users ,specially due to increase in number of users of e-commerce on the internet Introducing efficient web caching algorithms that employ predictive models of web requests; the general idea is to extend the cache replacement policies of proxy servers by making it sensible to web access models extracted from web log data using web usage mining. The development of an efficient web caching architecture, capable of adapting its behaviour on the basis of the access patterns of the users/clients. Such usage patterns ,or models are extracted from the historical access data recorded in log files by means of data mining techniques known as web usage mining. The approach that has been studied in the present work is based on sequential patterns technique. In the present work a prototypical system has been designed and developed, which supports web usage mining and simulation of the web caching algorithm. The experimental results of the new algorithm developed for cache replacement technique show substantial improvement over LRU-based cache replacement technique, in terms of Hit Rate and Response Time.
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Paper Nr: 208
Title:

EFFICIENT PROXY SERVER CACHING USING WEB USAGE MINING TECHNIQUE ON WEB LOGS - For Improving Hit Rate And Response Time

Authors:

Sanjay Silakari, Ashwini K. Ramani and Parul Saxena

Abstract: This paper presents a vertical application of web usage mining: efficient web caching for improving the response time , for the internet users ,specially due to increase in number of users of e-commerce on the internet Introducing efficient web caching algorithms that employ predictive models of web requests; the general idea is to extend the cache replacement policies of proxy servers by making it sensible to web access models extracted from web log data using web usage mining. The development of an efficient web caching architecture, capable of adapting its behaviour on the basis of the access patterns of the users/clients. Such usage patterns ,or models are extracted from the historical access data recorded in log files by means of data mining techniques known as web usage mining. The approach that has been studied in the present work is based on sequential patterns technique. In the present work a prototypical system has been designed and developed, which supports web usage mining and simulation of the web caching algorithm. The experimental results of the new algorithm developed for cache replacement technique show substantial improvement over LRU-based cache replacement technique, in terms of Hit Rate and Response Time.
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Paper Nr: 210
Title:

POLICY-BASED SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Authors:

Noh-sam Park, Shin K. Lee and Gilhaeng Lee

Abstract: SLA is a negotiated agreement between a customer and the service provider on levels of service characteristics and the associated set of metrics. In this paper, we propose a policy-based SLA management system. We present an approach to react not only when an SLA is violated, but also before imminent SLA violations. We provide a common generic framework capable of components to interwork via XML. The managed SLA metrics are classified into service opening metrics, trouble metrics, and performance metrics. We rely on a proposal for architecture to provide the end-user with SLM from the service subscription to the service termination. Finally, we’ll give an example to illustrate a typical scenario to assure customers’ SLAs in ADSL network service.
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Paper Nr: 213
Title:

A MODEL DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS USING DEN-NG

Authors:

John Strassner

Abstract: Current network management approaches rely on stovepipe architectures that can only share data through complicated mediation services that are costly to design and hard to maintain. This causes business rules to be embedded directly in the OSS, which means that every change on them requires direct modifications to the OSS. This paper describes an innovative approach that uses the DEN-ng models to represent the lifecycle of the solution. Extensions to the Model Driven Architecture initiative are presented which enable code to be generated for this approach. A case study is presented that illustrates the power of this approach.
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Paper Nr: 216
Title:

B2B TRANSACTIONS ENHANCED WITH ONTOLOGY-BASED SERVICES

Authors:

Andreia Malucelli, Eugénio Oliveira and Ana Paula Rocha

Abstract: In an efficient Virtual Enterprise (VE), where all the partners, both sending and receiving messages have to lead to acceptable and meaningful agreements, it is necessary to have common standards (an interaction protocol to achieve deals, a language for describing the messages’ content and ontology for describing the domain’s knowledge). This paper introduces first the ForEV platform, implemented through a Multi-Agent System. This platform facilitates partners’ selection automatic process in the context of VE and includes a negotiation protocol through multi-criteria and distributed constraint formalisms, as well as a reinforcement learning algorithm. Then, Ontology-based Services are proposed to be integrated in ForEV architecture in order to help in the VE formation process. These services will make the platform more open, enabling the establishment of the negotiation process between agents with different ontologies although representing the same domain of knowledge. An Ontology-based Services Agent is the responsible for providing the Ontology-based Services and monitoring the whole agents interaction just in time, without needing of a previous and tedious complete ontology mapping process. In our architecture each agent (either market or enterprise) has its own architecture and functionalities (some developer will design and build the ontology with some tool and, later, the agent will access the generated file/database), which implies the heterogeneity of the all Multi-Agent System.
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Paper Nr: 217
Title:

AN EFFICIENT NEGOTIATION STRATEGY IN E-COMMERCE CONTEXT BASED ON SIMPLE RANKING MECHANISM

Authors:

Malamati Louta, Ioanna Roussaki and Lambros Pechlivanos

Abstract: Electronic commerce is expected to dominate the market if coupled with the appropriate technologies and mechanisms. Mobile agents are one of the means that may enhance the intelligence and improve the efficiency of systems in the e-marketplace. In this paper, we propose a dynamic multilateral negotiation model and we construct an efficient negotiation strategy based on a ranking mechanism that does not require a complicated rationale on behalf of the buyer agents. This strategy can be used to extend the functionality of autonomous agents, so that they reach to an agreement aiming to maximise their owner’s utility. The framework considers both contract and decision issues, is based on real market conditions, and has been empirically evaluated.
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Paper Nr: 223
Title:

SECURE WEB BROWSING OVER LONG-DELAY BROADBAND NETWORKS - Recommendations for Web Browsers

Authors:

Douglas Dillon, Gurjit S. Butalia and Pawan K. Joshi

Abstract: Current browser implementations provide less than desirable secure web page response time over geosynchronous satellite and other long delay broadband networks (e.g., intercontinental access across the Internet). This document defines the issues and recommends a set of enhancements that improve response time without compromising security. These enhancements are shown, by analysis, to provide more than a 50% response time reduction for a typical secure web page.
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Paper Nr: 242
Title:

EXPERIMENTAL BASED TOOL CALIBRATION USED FOR ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF E-COMMERCE SYSTEMS

Authors:

Michalis Xenos, Dimitris Stavrinoudis and Antonia Stefani

Abstract: This paper presents a method used to evaluate the quality of e-commerce systems. The presented method uses a Belief Network in order to model the factors and criteria affecting the quality of e-commerce systems. This model can be applied not only for assessing the quality of e-commerce systems, but also for ensuring quality design before development. It also offers numerical results for the overall quality of an e-commerce system, as well as for its intermediate factors and lower-lever criteria. This paper presents the experimental results and the data analysis that aided towards the calibration of the model, i.e. assessing an e-commerce system and its individual characteristics based on the numerical results derived from the model.
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Paper Nr: 251
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF OPEN CODE APPLICATION FOR REMOTE MEASUREMENTS

Authors:

Keiko Veronica Ono Fonseca, Alexandre Pohl, Simone Müller Vidal, Keiko Ono Fonseca and Haroldo Stark Filho

Abstract: New Web-based monitoring and control system applications have been developed to allow remote control of equipments. Although interesting and useful, such applications present hidden costs related to software development tools, annual software licensing, regular maintenance and upgrades. This paper presents an application tool for controlling instruments over the Web developed using open code resource, such as Linux, JAVA and CamServ. The application shows a potential use for laboratories dealing with different types of equipment conformance testing. The developed tool allows access to the instrument’s screen through a video streaming process, an alternative towards similar application, in which data is first acquired and then plotted using graphical tools. First tests over a 10 Mbps LAN Network and 1 Gbps Ethernet Inter-Universities Network evaluated latency times and the video quality versus video signal acquisition system. Specification and development issues are described, as well testing and validation schemes of the developed application.
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Paper Nr: 252
Title:

INTEGRATING REQUIREMENTS & SPECIFICATIONS IN THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE CREATION PROCESS

Authors:

Dionisis Adamopoulos

Abstract: Existing telecommunications systems are gradually converging into a ubiquitous information infrastructure inside an open deregulated multi-provider telecommunications market place. Additionally, the demand for new value-generating telecommunications services is increasing and will increase rapidly in the years to come. Therefore, in order to derive a viable service paradigm, a service creation methodology is essential. After a brief presentation of such a proposed methodology, this paper focuses on its service analysis phase. More specifically, it determines the activities that take part in the service analysis phase and the artifacts that are produced, and examines important matters related to the role of use cases and the definition of conceptual models, interaction diagrams, operation contracts and state diagrams in the framework of tele-communications service engineering, exploiting the use of UML. Finally, alternative and complementary approaches for service analysis are highlighted and a validation attempt is briefly outlined.
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Paper Nr: 305
Title:

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ONLINE SHOPPERS’ DECISION-MAKING STYLES

Authors:

Chyan Yang and Chia Chun Wu

Abstract: Because of the SARS epidemic in Asia, people chose to the Internet shopping instead of going shopping on streets. In other words, SARS actually gave the Internet an opportunity to revive from its earlier bubbles. The purpose of this research is to provide managers of shopping Websites regarding consumer purchasing decisions based on the CSI (Consumer Styles Inventory) which was proposed by Sproles (1985) and Sproles & Kendall(1986). According to the CSI, one can capture the decision-making styles of online shoppers. Furthermore, this research also discusses the gender differences among online shoppers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to understand the decision-making styles and discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the differences between female and male shoppers. Managers of Internet shopping Websites can design a proper marketing mix with the findings that there are differences in purchasing decisions between genders.
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Paper Nr: 321
Title:

WHEN BUSINESS MODELS GO BAD: THE MUSIC INDUSTRY'S FUTURE

Authors:

Erik Wilde and Jacqueline Schwerzmann

Abstract: The music industry is an interesting example for how business models from the pre-Internet area can get into trouble in the new Internet-based economy. Since 2000, the music industry has suffered declining sales, and very often this is attributed to the advent of the Internet-based peer-to-peer le sharing programs. We argue that this explanation is only one of several possible explanations, and that the general decrease in the economic indicators is a more reasonable way to explain the declining sales. Whatever the reason for the declining sales may be, the question remains what the music industry could and should do to stop the decline in revenue. The current strategy of the music industry is centered around protecting their traditional business model through technical measures and in parallel working towards legally protecting the technical measures. It remains to be seen whether this approach is successful, and whether the resulting landscape of tightly controlled digital content distribution is technically feasible and accepted by the consumers. We argue that the search for new business models is the better way to go, even though it may take some time and effort to identify these business models.
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Paper Nr: 326
Title:

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF THE HOME NETWORK SYSTEMS USING THE SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

Authors:

Hiroshi Igaki, Ken-ichi Matsumoto and Masahide Nakamura

Abstract: In the conventional home network systems (HNS), a powerful centralized server controls all electric home appliances connected to provide value-added integrated services. However, when the number of the appliances increases and the appliances become more sophisticated, the conventional architecture would suffer from problems in superfluous resources, flexibility, scalability and reliability. This paper proposes alternative architecture for HNS, which exploits the service-oriented architecture with Web Services. In the proposed architecture, each appliance is controlled by a Web service in a de-centralized manner. Then, the services autonomously collaborate with each other to achieve the integrated service scenarios. To evaluate the HNS at the design process, we also present four kinds of evaluation metrics: reliability, load, complexity, and coupling. Using these metrics, we conduct a comparative study among the proposed and the previous HNS architectures.
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Paper Nr: 329
Title:

INTERNET, WIRELESS AND LEGACY INTEGRATION - Architectural Framework for Testing

Authors:

Nenad Stankovic

Abstract: Voice and data networks require performing components of highest quality. To achieve these goals software engineering employs testing. However, software performance and performance testing have been less studied and reported on. We present here the test-bed developed and used in performance and stability testing of the intelligent networks integration infrastructure. We used the Visper framework for rapid distributed application development to build our test-bed. We also report on common programming problems that have been identified in multiple applications written in Java, and on the experience with our test-bed. Our findings are based on the work and feedback provided by experienced professionals with a solid object-oriented background. Their experience with Java and J2EE was mixed, while the test-bed and the concepts of distributed programming were new to everyone involved.
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Paper Nr: 333
Title:

WIRELESS TELEMEDICINE AND SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATION

Authors:

Cristina Miyata, Akira Kawaguchi, Stewart Russell and Tereza Carvalho

Abstract: Wireless telemedicine is a new and evolving area in medical and health care systems, exploiting new developments in mobile telecommunication and multimedia technologies and their integration into new mobile health care delivery systems. A growing body of researchers and manufacturers are working to develop a new generation of wireless technology applications for the medical field. In industry and clinical practice, it is common to outsource services from non-core departments, such as Information Technology (IT) and financial support. Overall business performance depends on these outsourced services, therefore a contractual guarantee of outsourced service performance must be developed, which is then monitored by a Service Level Management (SLM) process. A rigorous approach is needed to specify SLM system architectures that are scalable, flexible, reliable and secure. This paper will discuss the establishment of architecture suitable for the evaluation and measurement of quality of services (QoS) for wireless telemedicine applications. We consider a case-study of a wireless diabetes information management system. The overall methodology and a stepwise specification approach based on the reference model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is presented.
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Paper Nr: 334
Title:

NEW FAIR PAYMENT PROTOCOLS

Authors:

Hao Wang, Heqing Guo and Manshan Lin

Abstract: Fair payment protocol is designed to guarantee fairness in electronic purchasing, that is, no party can falsely deny involvement in the transaction or having sent/received the specific items/payment. In this paper we first present an efficient fair payment protocol providing invisibility of TTP, timeliness, and standard RSA signatures as the final non-repudiation evidences. Then we present a second payment protocol which is the first one to provide abuse-freeness. Our protocols can be easily integrated into the existing electronic payment systems.
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Paper Nr: 339
Title:

SCHEDULING DECISION-MAKING USING WEB SERVICE

Authors:

Leonilde Varela, Sílvio Silva and Joaquim Aparício

Abstract: In this paper we make a contribution for scheduling problems solving through the web, by using web service. The XML-based modeling and communication is applied to the production scheduling activity. Therefore, scheduling concepts, like manufacturing problems and solving methods, including corresponding inputs and outputs are modeled using XML. This kind of data modeling is used for building our web-based scheduling decision support system, which works as a web service under the XML-RPC protocol. This protocol is used for invoking the implemented methods, for solving problems defined by the user, which are local or remotely available through the Internet. New methods can be continuously incorporated in the system’s distributed repository in an easy and interactive way.
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Paper Nr: 432
Title:

FURTHER ANALYSIS ON THE APPLICATION OF MOBILE AGENTS IN NETWORK ROUTING

Authors:

Wenyu Qu, Wenyu Qu, Hong Shen and John Sum

Abstract: Mobile agent-based routing is a newly proposed routing technique for using in large networks. In order to save network resources, it is desirable to dispatch a small number of mobile agents to get a high probability of finding the destination (probability of success). Therefore, it is not only necessary but also important to analyze the searching activity and the population growth of mobile agents for improving the performance in agent-driven networks. Yet currently there is a lack of such analysis. In this paper, we present a new mobile agent-based routing model for describing the behavior of mobile agents for network routing. Then we analyze both the probability of success and the population growth of mobile agents running in the network. The theoretical results show that the probability of success and the number of mobile agents can be controlled by adjusting relevant parameters according various network characteristics. Our results reveal new theoretical insights into the statistical behaviors of mobile agents and provide useful tools for effectively managing mobile agents in large networks.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 37
Title:

TM.AN: COMMANDING THE POWER OF COLLABORATIVE TASK MANAGEMENT

Authors:

Zoheir Ezziane, Bader Maktari and Naoufel Werghi

Abstract: The fundamental driving force behind any business, no matter of its size is the generation of tasks. The logical grouping of these tasks into business processes has cause the phenomenal development of software packages to meet the need of natural internal business evolution, which is evident by the mass number of business applications available on the market today. However this paper will try to single out a specific area that has not received as great amount of application development attention, due to its in-between nature. The TM.AN (Task Management and Administrative Notification) application focuses on this unlit area by developing/outlining the needed features to encourage a more task oriented culture, thereby exploiting its applied benefits. This paper, describes the concepts that inspired the development of TM.AN such as the lack of information/progress sharing between employees and the design principles for instance the development of a structure to capture performance information from employee, task and customer entities.
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Paper Nr: 101
Title:

A NEW WORD-INTERSECTION CLUSTERING METHOD FOR INFORMATION FILTERING

Authors:

Mao Huang, Jun Lai and Ben Soh

Abstract: As the use of the web grows globally and exponentially, it becomes increasingly harder for users to find the information they want. Therefore, there is a need for good information filtering mechanisms. This paper presents a new, efficient information filtering method using word clusters. Traditional filtering methods only consider the relevance values of document. As a result, these conventional methods fail to consider the efficiency of document retrieval, which is also crucial. Our algorithm using offline computation attempts to cluster similar documents based on words shared by documents to produce clusters, so that the efficiency of information filtering and retrieval can be improved.
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Paper Nr: 102
Title:

TOWARD PERVASIVE COMPUTING IN RESTAURANT

Authors:

Yang Xiang, Wanlei Zhou and Morshed Chowdhury

Abstract: In this paper, an example of pervasive computing in restaurant, a wireless web-based ordering system is presented. By using mobile devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and WebPad, customers can get many benefits when making orders in restaurants. With this system, customers get faster and better services, restaurant staff cooperate more efficiently with less working mistakes, and enterprise owners thus receive more business profits. This system has multi-tiered web-based system architecture with good integration and scalability features, and is client device operating system fully independent. Details of design and implementation of this system are presented.
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Paper Nr: 107
Title:

STRUCTURED DOCUMENTS REPRESENTED BY CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS - A simple formalism for presenting structured documents

Authors:

Vanyo Peychev, Jimmy Dubuisson, Zhechka Toteva and Vladimir Dimitrov

Abstract: Each structured document can be represented by means of XML and an associated DTD. The goal of this article is to present a formal model of a structured document, and to make a representation of a document described by the model with a conceptual graph and a related DTD.
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Paper Nr: 108
Title:

DEPLOYMENT OF LIVE-VIDEO SERVICES BASED ON STREAMING TECHNOLOGY OVER AN HFC NETWORK

Authors:

Kami Makki, David Melendi, Xabiel G. Pañeda, Roberto García, Roberto Garcia and Víctor G. García

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to the deployment of a live-video service based on streaming technology over an HFC network. This approach covers most of the issues that may arise while putting one of these services into operation, taking into account new aspects such as those oriented to the improvement and prior analysis of the service’s behaviour. An accurate and continuous service analysis can contribute to boost the service’s performance and thus to lead the service to the so called excellence of service. This paper also presents a service architecture specifically designed for HFC networks that takes advantage of the structure of this kind of networks. Furthermore, a complete framework that facilitates most of the tasks that are needed to deploy and manage a live-video service over the internet is presented.
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Paper Nr: 108
Title:

DEPLOYMENT OF LIVE-VIDEO SERVICES BASED ON STREAMING TECHNOLOGY OVER AN HFC NETWORK

Authors:

Kami Makki, David Melendi, Xabiel G. Pañeda, Roberto García, Roberto Garcia and Víctor G. García

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to the deployment of a live-video service based on streaming technology over an HFC network. This approach covers most of the issues that may arise while putting one of these services into operation, taking into account new aspects such as those oriented to the improvement and prior analysis of the service’s behaviour. An accurate and continuous service analysis can contribute to boost the service’s performance and thus to lead the service to the so called excellence of service. This paper also presents a service architecture specifically designed for HFC networks that takes advantage of the structure of this kind of networks. Furthermore, a complete framework that facilitates most of the tasks that are needed to deploy and manage a live-video service over the internet is presented.
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Paper Nr: 114
Title:

A METHOD FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED APPLICATION SERVICES - Simulating the execution of integrated application services

Authors:

Hiroshi Yamada

Abstract: Many enterprises are applying enterprise application integration (EAI) technologies in order to realize optimal performance for IT systems made up of multiple applications on multiple platforms as well individual application system. Most EAI tools facilitate the integration of several application services to implement a designed workflow process. The individual application systems are coordinated by a workflow-driven broker-server coordinates the system through web-service technologies such as SOAP and XML. In designing the workflow process that will run on the broker-server, the workflow designers must consider the overall performance of the integrated services and the network architecture and resources on which the component IT systems run. This paper describes a performance-evaluation methodology that we have developed for the analysis of such integrated application services. Elements of the methodology include a method for the design and implementation of application-traffic models as UML sequence diagrams and the implementation of workflow-process models as UML activity diagrams. On this basis, we develop a set of OPNET process models to represent the functions of workflow-driven broker-servers. We also develop application-traffic and workflow-process node models that configure the OPNET broker-server models into simulated networks, provide the other components of the networks, and specify the flows of data and control. Such OPNET models allow us to simulate integrated services that are driven by workflow-process descriptions, vary the network architecture scenario, and evaluate the resulting overall performance. Applying the proposed methodology from the early stages of development of systems of the type described will help us to avoid later problems with performance. We also give an example of a simple case study of the methodology’s application.
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Paper Nr: 114
Title:

A METHOD FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED APPLICATION SERVICES - Simulating the execution of integrated application services

Authors:

Hiroshi Yamada

Abstract: Many enterprises are applying enterprise application integration (EAI) technologies in order to realize optimal performance for IT systems made up of multiple applications on multiple platforms as well individual application system. Most EAI tools facilitate the integration of several application services to implement a designed workflow process. The individual application systems are coordinated by a workflow-driven broker-server coordinates the system through web-service technologies such as SOAP and XML. In designing the workflow process that will run on the broker-server, the workflow designers must consider the overall performance of the integrated services and the network architecture and resources on which the component IT systems run. This paper describes a performance-evaluation methodology that we have developed for the analysis of such integrated application services. Elements of the methodology include a method for the design and implementation of application-traffic models as UML sequence diagrams and the implementation of workflow-process models as UML activity diagrams. On this basis, we develop a set of OPNET process models to represent the functions of workflow-driven broker-servers. We also develop application-traffic and workflow-process node models that configure the OPNET broker-server models into simulated networks, provide the other components of the networks, and specify the flows of data and control. Such OPNET models allow us to simulate integrated services that are driven by workflow-process descriptions, vary the network architecture scenario, and evaluate the resulting overall performance. Applying the proposed methodology from the early stages of development of systems of the type described will help us to avoid later problems with performance. We also give an example of a simple case study of the methodology’s application.
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Paper Nr: 116
Title:

A RUN TIME ENVIRONMENT EXTENSION FOR PERSONALIZED WEB SERVICES

Authors:

Sandford Bessler, Julia Gross and Joachim Zeiss

Abstract: This paper considers the web service environment for Telco applications, as defined recently by the Parlay-X Working Group within the Parlay organisation. These services include messaging, location, payment, call control, presence, group management, etc. and open the way to rapid service creation and integration with internet applications. However, some vital issues for the telecommunications industry such as the secure user access to a service and its personalization have not been addressed yet sufficiently. The Web Services Run Time Environment Extension (WSRTE) presented in this paper is a light, vendor-independent frame-work that facilitates the creation of personalized web services by combining security and profiling functions.
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Paper Nr: 132
Title:

WEB MAPPING OF REAL-WORLD THINGS AND ITS APPLICATIONS - Product WebID as a driving force for new supply chains

Authors:

Vladimir Krylov and Dmitry Ponomarev

Abstract: This paper discusses the use of web sites as individual IDs for things and processes of the real world. We regard a web site as an information entity that perfectly fits the purpose of identifying a real-life object or process. We examine a scenario of tagging manufactured products with information tags called WebIDs and describe their possible information makeup. Individual WebIDs that are automatically created for each item during production and accompany the item throughout its entire lifecycle, have far-reaching implications for many areas of human activity. The availability of pertinent information contained in the product ID promotes awareness of the product origin, quality, location and history. Access to information about the product protects consumer rights and contributes to the efficiency of commerce. Elimination of manufacturer and owner anonymity helps to combat produce counterfeits, smuggling, and illegal movement of commodities.
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Paper Nr: 181
Title:

A NOVEL PEER-TO-PEER PAYMENT SYSTEM

Authors:

Despoina Palaka, Michael Strintzis, Petros Daras and Kosmas Petridis

Abstract: In this paper a novel payment system for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) commerce transactions is presented. It implements electronic cash-based transactions, between buyers and merchants. In this system, financial institutions become partners in the e-commerce transaction, conducted by their customers over the Internet. The innovation of the proposed system is the reduction of the involvement of the financial institutions to ancillary support services. Moreover, the proposed system can be characterized as distributed allocation of provinces to merchants, who are responsible for locally authorizing payments. Finally, it is optimized for repeated payments to the same merchants.
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Paper Nr: 249
Title:

LOCAL vs REMOTE INFORMATION FOR LOCATION BASED SERVICES

Authors:

Jesus Villadangos, Alberto Cordoba, Jose J. Astrain Escola and M. Prieto

Abstract: Location-based services (henceforth referred to as LBS) have emerged as an important component of m-commerce strategy. Location can determine consumers’ information needs and their product and service choices. We propose and evaluate different architectures for LBS considering that service provider allocates at different locations its information. Finally, we propose some design rules that consider the trade-off between transfer delay and query database time to improve LBS response time.
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Paper Nr: 256
Title:

SERVICE CREATION TECHNOLOGIES IN OPEN PROGRAMMABLE NETWORKS

Authors:

Dionisis Adamopoulos and Constantine Papandreou

Abstract: The architectural frameworks that support the development of advanced telecommunications services have a generic and abstract character and do not specify with accuracy the proposed activities and the order of the steps that are necessary for their successful realisation. For this reason, this paper proposes an incremental and iterative service creation methodology, argues about its usefulness, outlines its basic characteristics and focuses on the necessity to complement it with a suitable Service Creation Environment (SCE). Therefore, the paper attempts to define SCEs, identifies their main characteristics, examines important related approaches in a critical manner and reasons about the relation of the SCE with the proposed service development methodology, highlighting the role and purpose that it should have.
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Paper Nr: 258
Title:

THE ELECTRICITY RETAIL MARKET: REQUERIMENTS FOR AN E-BUSINESS SYSTEM

Authors:

Victor D. Santos, Edmundo Monteiro and António Martins

Abstract: In the last decade the electric energy market as changed is structure in several countries, mainly in the most developed, ones where the regulated activity of electrical companies where a monopoly or an oligopoly of all sectors from generation to the distribution. Changes brought new structures and new markets. The first market is between the generation plants and the wholesalers. The second market takes pace in the wholesale market where the retailers acquire the electricity that will sell to their clients the third market. To support this new reality advanced information systems are needed. This paper addresses the use of e-Commerce systems to support the electricity markets. The main requirements of the technological structure for an electricity retail company in a deregulated electricity market are identified and evaluated. The purposed solution is based on a B2B (Business–to–Business) structure to deal with the relations between the retailer and the wholesale side, and a B2C (Business–to–Client) dealing with the relation between the retailer and its clients that could be in the industrial, commercial, social or even domestic sectors.
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Paper Nr: 324
Title:

THE ROLE OF ASON AND GMPLS FOR THE BANDWIDTH TRADING MARKET - Bandwidth Brokerage under the influence of novel control plane technologies

Authors:

Andreas Iselt, Andreas Kirstädter and Rayane Chahine

Abstract: Bandwidth services as they have evolved over the last years can increasingly be seen as a commodity. Multiple network operators have comparable offerings and compete for customers. This fuelled the foundation of bandwidth brokerage and bandwidth trading companies in the late 90s. Unfortunately, their business models where not very successful in the past. Besides the overall economic weakness at the moment we identify some generic and technical reasons for this. Moreover we show that with novel automation technologies like GMPLS or ASON/ASTN some of these problems can be alleviated. Possible operational models show how future bandwidth brokers or traders could be organised.
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Area 2 - Security and Reliability in Informations Systems and Networks

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 100
Title:

DATA MINING TECHNIQUES FOR SECURITY OF WEB SERVICES

Authors:

Manu Malek, Manu Malek and Fotios Harmantzis

Abstract: The Internet, while being increasingly used to provide services efficiently, poses a unique set of security issues due to its openness and ubiquity. We highlight the importance of security in web services and describe how data mining techniques can offer help. The anatomy of a specific security attack is described. We then survey some security intrusions detection techniques based on data mining and point out their shortcomings. Then we provide some novel data mining techniques to detect such attacks, and describe some safeguard against these attacks.
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Paper Nr: 110
Title:

MPLS ARCHITECTURE FOR SERVICE PROVIDER

Authors:

N Rajendran, S Albert Rabara, V. P. Gulati and K Yugandhar

Abstract: MPLS is an emerging backbone technology for service providers, which is being deployed on a large scale in recent days. Using MPLS, service providers can deliver different types of services like TE, QoS and IP VPN along with adequate security according to the specific business demands, across either switched or routed networks. This paper deals with the current problems in service providers’ network, overview of the MPLS technology and MPLS architecture for service provider. By deploying the MPLS in the service provider’s network, the study reveals that the throughput of the network has been improved with decreased latency for the larger file size.
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Paper Nr: 121
Title:

NEW NON-ADAPTIVE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM-LEVEL DIAGNOSIS METHODS FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS

Authors:

Hiroshi Masuyama and Koji Watanabe

Abstract: A hierarchical non-adaptive diagnosis algorithm is presented for testing total N nodes of computer networks. Since general computer networks can be regarded as an N-nodes complete graph, then for the efficient testing, it is essential that the test process be parallelized to enable simultaneous test of multiple nodes. In order to attain this object, we propose a noble test graph enabling to test as many nodes as possible in a network due to a hierarchical architecture of test processes. The amount of test times is evaluated as the diagnosis latency. Optimal diagnosability t is analyzed under clustered fault distribution. In order to reduce the amount of required test times, two revised approaches are discussed and evaluated.
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Paper Nr: 123
Title:

GSM AND GPRS PERFORMANCE OF IPSEC DATA COMMUNICATION

Authors:

Gianluigi Me, Giuseppe F. Italiano and Paolo Spagnoletti

Abstract: Cellular Internet services must grapple with the added security threats posed by the radio transmission, open to eavesdropping. Furthermore, the combination of always-on connectivity and an interface to the public Internet means high speed data services has to cope with the same security issues that can be found in the wired environment.Confidentiality of GSM/GPRS communications has been provided only in BS-ME/GGSN-ME by COMP128/GEA+ algorithms, whose strength is often not believed adequate for corporate/governmental requirements. Furthermore, A5/1 and A5/2 algorithms have been recently attacked with real time ciphertext only cryptanalysis by Barkan, Biham and Keller. To provide an adequate level of security, it is often argued to employ IPSec over the GSM/GPRS framework. We provide experimental evidences that IPSec is a viable solution to provide the desired level of security. In particular, the overhead generated is tolerable where high sensitive/critical communications take place. We expect that our findings could help better understanding how securing a deployed GSM/GPRS network which corporate/governmental infrastructures can rely on and what performances can be expected by using IPsec over these media.
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Paper Nr: 133
Title:

ROBUST QOS CONTROL FOR IP-BASED CELLULAR NETWORKS

Authors:

Akihito Okura, Akira Miura, Hiroshi Kawakami and Takeshi Ihara

Abstract: This paper proposes "Proactive Control and Multipath Control" to realize a robust QoS control system for IP-based cellular networks. In these networks, all kinds of traffic will share the same backbone network. This requires a QoS system that differentiates services according to the required quality. Though DiffServ is thought to be a promising technique for achieving QoS, a technique that is proof against rapid traffic changes and an effective path control scheme are not yet available. Our solution is proactive control using traffic anomaly detection and multipath control using linear optimization. Simulation results show that proactive control and multipath control improve system performance in terms of throughput and packet loss when rapid traffic change takes place.
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Paper Nr: 156
Title:

A COST-EFFECTIVE IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS AND CROSS-CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

Authors:

Sanjay Silakari, Ashwini K. Ramani and Pinaki Ghosh

Abstract: Authorization and identification has become a vital part of security systems of any society. With the changing of technology implementations in the present scenario, every country specially developing countries like India needs a cost-effective and reliable solution for authentication system. In this paper, efficient technique for iris recognition system is described which provides a reliable authentication at low cost. The proposed system uses linear discriminant analysis and cross correlation methods for identification and verification purpose. The system was implemented and tested using a dataset of 80 samples of iris with different contrast quality. The classification rate compared with the well-known methods is also discussed.
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Paper Nr: 156
Title:

A COST-EFFECTIVE IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING LINEAR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS AND CROSS-CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

Authors:

Sanjay Silakari, Ashwini K. Ramani and Pinaki Ghosh

Abstract: Authorization and identification has become a vital part of security systems of any society. With the changing of technology implementations in the present scenario, every country specially developing countries like India needs a cost-effective and reliable solution for authentication system. In this paper, efficient technique for iris recognition system is described which provides a reliable authentication at low cost. The proposed system uses linear discriminant analysis and cross correlation methods for identification and verification purpose. The system was implemented and tested using a dataset of 80 samples of iris with different contrast quality. The classification rate compared with the well-known methods is also discussed.
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Paper Nr: 165
Title:

INTERNET SECURITY: PUBLIC-KEY INFRASTRACTURES AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS

Authors:

Ben Soh and Luke Sledziona

Abstract: In the current business environment there is an ever growing view of the World Wide Web, commonly referred to as the Internet, as the new frontier for electronic commerce or e-commerce. As a result many businesses are developing applications and/or websites in order to conduct e-commerce on the Internet without properly considering the implications of the certification system that they are choosing to use, if they use one at all. The aim of this paper is to present work in the area of public key infrastructures and certification systems by discussing important topics pertaining to this area of research. The security needs of businesses will be initially discussed as an introduction to certification systems. This leads into the discussions of X.509 public key infrastructures and certificate revocation, where the associated problems will be discussed.
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Paper Nr: 169
Title:

A METHOD OF IDENTIFYING TRANSFER FUNCTION FOR NETWORK BY USE OF M-SEQUENCE CORRELATION

Authors:

Eiji Nishiyama and Kenshi Kuwanami

Abstract: Monitoring a communication line is significant for broadband, mobile phone and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method for detecting a fault point of communication line by use of M-sequence correlation technique. In this method, detecting signal is used as one or plural M-sequences ( same characteristic polynomial, including normal and reverse mark, synchronized ). At receiving tap, we make same sequence with the input one and take crosscorrelation function between M-sequence and the received signal. We can get transfer functions of plural paths between inputs and a output tap separated from different of delay times on the crosscorrelation function, and from these transfer functions, so fault point is occurred when we compare them.
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Paper Nr: 203
Title:

SOURCE CODE AUTHORSHIP ANALYSIS FOR SUPPORTING THE CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATION PROCESS

Authors:

Georgia Frantzeskou, Stefanos Gritzalis and Stephen G. MacDonell

Abstract: Cybercrime has increased in severity and frequency in the recent years and because of this, it has become a major concern for companies, universities and organizations. The anonymity offered by the Internet has made the task of tracing criminal identity difficult. One study field that has contributed in tracing criminals is authorship analysis on e-mails, messages and programs. This paper contains a study on source code authorship analysis. The aim of the research efforts in this area is to identify the author of a particular piece of code by examining its programming style characteristics. Borrowing extensively from the existing fields of linguistics and software metrics, this field attempts to investigate various aspects of computer program authorship. Source code authorship analysis could be implemented in cases of cyber attacks, plagiarism and computer fraud. In this paper we present the set of tools and techniques used to achieve the goal of authorship identification, a review of the research efforts in the area and a new taxonomy on source code authorship analysis.
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Paper Nr: 212
Title:

PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHM WITH WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION

Authors:

Ari Viinikainen, Jyrki Joutsensalo, Mikko Pääkkönen and Timo Hamalainen

Abstract: In this paper we present a scheduling algorithm for traffic allocation. In our model, we use a flat pricing scenario in which the weights of the queues are updated using revenue as a target function. Due to the algorithm's closed form nature, it is capable of operating in non-stationary environments. In addition, the algorithm is nonparametric and deterministic in the sense that any assumptions about the call density functions or duration distributions are not made.
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Paper Nr: 225
Title:

PRACTICAL AUDITABILITY IN TRUSTED MESSAGING SYSTEMS

Authors:

Miguel Reis, António Eduardo Dias and Artur Romão

Abstract: The success of a dispute resolution over an electronic transaction depends on the possibility of trustworthily recreating it. It is crucial to maintain a trusted, thus fully auditable, repository to which a judge could request a transaction recreation. This article presents a practical scheme providing strong guarantees about the auditability of a trusted repository. We use the messaging paradigm to present the mechanism, but it can be applied to any other scenario that needs to maintain fully auditable long term information.
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Paper Nr: 234
Title:

PACKET SCHEDULING FOR MAXIMIZING REVENUE IN A NETWORK NODE

Authors:

Jian Zhang, Timo Hamalainen and Jyrki Joutsensalo

Abstract: In the future Internet, different applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP) and Video-on-Demand (VoD) arise with different demands on Quality of Service (QoS). Different kinds of service classes (e.g. gold, silver, bronze) should be supported in a network node. In the network node, packets are queued using a multiqueue system, where each queue corresponds to one service class. The customers of different classes will pay different prices to network providers based on multi-class pricing models. In this paper, we considered the optimization problem of maximizing the revenue attained in a network node under linear pricing scenario. A revenue-aware scheduling approach is introduced, which has the closed-form solution to the optimal weights for revenue maximization derived from revenue target function by Lagrangian optimization approach. The simulations demonstrate the revenue maximization ability of our approach.
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Paper Nr: 255
Title:

A POLICY-BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR PROTECTING 802.11 WLANS AGAINST DDOS ATTACKS

Authors:

Wenzhe Zhou and Alan Marshall

Abstract: The security mechanisms available in 802.11WLANs are considered to be extremely vulnerable to malicious attacks. This paper proposes a policy-based architecture to protect 802.11 WLANs against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. The architecture proposed is based on the 802.1X standard, which forms the basis of the Robust Security Network (RSN) framework. The main focus of our work is to develop a policy-based server that can control certain actions taken by WLAN access points so that proper countermeasures will be taken whenever a DDoS attack occurs. The policies are both rule and case based and are contained in a Policy Based Security Server (PBSS). The approach taken is to simulate the behaviour of this architecture when faced with a range of DDoS attack strategies, and to use this to characterise the type of security policies required by the PBSS.
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Paper Nr: 257
Title:

A HEURISTIC STATE SPACE SEARCH MODEL FOR SECURITY PROTOCOL VERIFICATION

Authors:

Zeeshan Furqan, Shahabuddin Muhammad and Ratan Guha

Abstract: The vulnerability and importance of computers, robots, internet etc, demand the employment of exceedingly reliable security protocols. E-Business can not be encouraged with susceptible underlying security protocols. We present a heuristic state space search model for automatic security protocol verification. Our model exploits its knowledge of the search space and intelligently enhances the efficiency of security protocol verification process. It uses the representation of security protocols in terms of Strand Space Model (SSM) and logic of authentication. The attributes of security protocol are first represented in SSM and then interpreted into logic. This logical module is coded in form of states. Our model accepts these states as its input and attempts to verify them. An efficient algorithm is used for the verification procedure. The goal is to avoid state space explosion problem and improve the overall efficiency by exploring maximum number of states in a given amount of time. The simplicity of our approach enables it to be translated into existing solutions for greater efficiency.
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Paper Nr: 292
Title:

TOWARDS AN ADAPTIVE PACKET MARKING SCHEME FOR IP TRACEBACK

Authors:

Ping Yan and Moon Chuen Lee

Abstract: Denial of Service attacks have become one of the most serious threats to the Internet community. An effec-tive means to defend against such attacks is to locate the attack source(s) and to isolate it from the rest of the network. This paper proposes an adaptive packet marking scheme for IP traceback, which supports two types of marking, namely source router id marking and domain id marking. For each packet traversing, we let the border routers perform probabilistic router id marking if this packet enters the network for the first time, or perform probabilistic domain id marking if the packet is forwarded from another domain. After col-lecting sufficient packets, the victim reconstructs the attack graph, by which we keep track of the interme-diate domains traversed by attack packets instead of individual routers within a domain; however, the source routers serving as ingress points of attack traffic are identified at the same time. Simulation results show that the proposed marking scheme outperforms other IP traceback methods as it requires fewer pack-ets for attack paths reconstruction, and can handle large number of attack sources effectively; and the false positives produced are significantly low. Further, it does not generate additional traffic.
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Paper Nr: 293
Title:

SECURE APPLICATION UPDATES ON POINT OF SALE DEVICES

Authors:

Nuno F. Neves and Manuel Mendonça

Abstract: Currently, a large number of electronic transactions are performed with credit or debit cards at terminals located in merchant stores, such as Point of Sale Devices. The success of this form of payment, however, has an associated cost due to the management and maintenance of the many equipments from different generations and manufacturers. In particular, there is an important cost related to the deployment of new software upgrades for the devices, since in most cases human intervention is required. In this paper we describe a secure solution for this problem, where Point of Sale Devices are able to automatically discover and upload new software updates.
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Paper Nr: 300
Title:

BASELINE TO HELP WITH NETWORK MANAGEMENT

Authors:

Mario L. Proença Jr., Mauricio Bottoli, Leonardo Mendes and Camiel Coppelmans

Abstract: This paper presents a model for automatic generation of a baseline which characterizes the traffic of network segments. The use of the baseline concept allows the manager to: identify limitations and crucial points of the network; learn about the actual status of use of the network resources; be able to gain better control of the use of network resources and to establish thresholds for the generation of more accurate and intelligent alarms, better suited to the actual characteristics of the network. Moreover, some results obtained with the practical use of the baseline in the management of network segments, are also presented. The results obtained validate the experiment and show, in practice, significant advantages in their use for network management.
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Paper Nr: 306
Title:

CERTIFICATE-BASED ACCESS CONTROL AND AUTHENTICATION FOR DHCP

Authors:

Jacques Demerjian, MOHAMMED ACHEMLAL and Ahmed Serhrouchni

Abstract: In the current Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, security is not considered. DHCP itself does support neither an access control for a proper user nor the mechanism with which clients and servers authenticate each other. In this paper, we introduce a novel authentication and access control mechanism for DHCP systems. This solution defines a new DHCP option that provides the authentication of both, entities (client/server) and DHCP messages. We built up our mechanism on the use of public key cryptography, X.509 identity certificates and attribute certificates. In addition, the PMI (Privilege Management Infrastructure) functionalities are attributed to a new server that groups DHCP server and AA (Attributes Authority) server. The resulting server creates an attribute certificate to the client that will be used then in the access control.
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Paper Nr: 323
Title:

STACKFENCES: A RUN-TIME APPROACH FOR DETECTING STACK OVERFLOWS

Authors:

André Zúquete

Abstract: This paper describes StackFences, a run-time technique for detecting overflows in local variables in C programs. This technique is different from all others developed so far because it tries to detect explicit overflow occurrences, instead of detecting if a particular stack value, namely a return address, was corrupted because of a stack overflow. Thus, StackFences is useful not only for detecting intrusion attempts but also for checking the run-time robustness of applications. We also conceived different policies for deploying StackFences, allowing a proper balancing between detection accuracy and performance. Effectiveness tests confirmed that all overflows in local variables are detected before causing any severe damage. Performance tests ran with several tools and parameters showed an acceptable performance degradation.
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Paper Nr: 331
Title:

MEASUREMENTS OF TCPW ABSE FAIRNESS AND FRIENDLINESS

Authors:

Ilhem Lengliz, Medy Sanadidi, Haifa Touati, Fehmi Sanàa and Farouk Kamoun

Abstract: TCP Westwood (TCPW), is a TCP protocol with a sender-side modification of the window congestion control scheme. This protocol is intended to act in packet lossy environments. It relies on a continuous estimation, by the traffic source, of the connection packet rate based on the ACK reception rate. And this in order to compute the congestion window and the slow start threshold settings after a congestion episode. Given that it has been yet established through experimental and simulation studies that TCPW exhibits significant improvements in throughput performance over Reno in various environments, we are focusing in this paper on TCPW performance measurements with respect to throughput, fairness and friendliness towards TCP New Reno in a wired LAN and in the Internet. Which constitutes a proceeding of a set of measurements achieved on TCPW in similar environment. In this paper we present the results of some experimentations carried out in the CRSITAL Laboratory with a FreeBSD TCPW ABSE protocol implementation.
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Paper Nr: 336
Title:

NETWORK-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS EVALUATION THROUGH A SHORT TERM EXPERIMENTAL SCRIPT

Authors:

Luciano Gaspary and Leonardo Fagundes

Abstract: Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have become an essential component to improve security in networked environments. The increasing set of available IDSs has stimulated research projects that investigate means to assess them and to find out their strengths and limitations (in order to improve the IDSs themselves) and to assist the security manager in selecting the product that best suits specific requirements. Current approaches to do that (a) require the accomplishment of complex procedures that take too much time to be executed, (b) do not provide any systematic way of executing them, and (c) require, in general, specific knowledge of IDSs internal structure to be applied. In this paper we address these limitations by proposing a script to evaluate network-based IDSs regarding their detection capability, scalability and false positive rate. Two Intrusion Detection Systems, Snort and Firestorm, have been assessed to validate our approach.
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Paper Nr: 337
Title:

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF TRANSACTION-BASED INTERNET APPLICATIONS THROUGH SNMP

Authors:

Luciano Gaspary and Ederson Canterle

Abstract: This paper proposes an approach to monitor response time of transaction-based Internet applications and protocols that uses a passive network traffic monitoring technique and stores the resulting statistics in a management information base compatible with the SNMP architecture. The work is within the scope of the Trace platform, which provides support for high-layer protocols, services and networked applications management. The implementation of the proposed approach comprises the extension of the monitoring agent, a key component of the platform, so that it stores information related to response time and generates performance-related reports.
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Paper Nr: 340
Title:

FAST AND STRONG CONTROL OF CONGESTION-MAKING TRAFFIC

Authors:

Gaeil Ahn, Kiyoung Kim and Jongsoo Jang

Abstract: In case that malicious or selfish user congests network, the traditional congestion control schemes such as ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) in TCP protocol could not control the pernicious congestion so perfectly as they protect normal traffic. In this paper, we propose a strong congestion-making traffic control scheme, which is capable of preventing malicious or selfish user from congesting networks by dropping only packets corresponding to congestion-making traffic when a network congestion occurs. Our scheme involves two mechanisms: a traffic service decision mechanism that is able to fast and correctly determine whether an incoming packet is normal traffic or congestion-making, and a marking mechanism for identifying congestion-making traffic. In the marking mechanism a router can mark a packet in order to notify downstream routers that the marked packet is congestion-making traffic. To show our scheme's excellence, its performance is measured and compared with that of the existing schemes through simulation.
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Paper Nr: 342
Title:

RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF E-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Olga Ormandjieva and Vasu Alagar

Abstract: The paper discusses a formal approach for specifying time-dependent E-Commerce applications and proposes a Markov model for reliability prediction. Measures for predicting reliability are calculated from the formal architectural specification and system configuration descriptions. Our methods have been implemented and a set of sample results obtained from it for a simple system is given.
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Paper Nr: 345
Title:

A SINGLE SIGN-ON PROTOCOL FOR DISTRIBUTED WEB APPLICATIONS BASED ON STANDARD INTERNET MECHANISMS

Authors:

Anke Thede, Andreas Geyer-Schulz and Julian Gantner

Abstract: Growing e-commerce and personalized Web sites require users to set up many different personal accounts. Personal data has to be entered many times and each user has to memorize different username and password combinations. This reduces system security as users tend to either use passwords that are very easy to guess, or they write them down, or they use the same password for many different accounts. It also increases the cost of the administration of the user accounts. We propose a protocol for a single sign-on system that allows users to visit multiple internet applications having to login only once. The system is based on standard internet mechanisms. It is composed of different servers that provide authentication and authorization services and is based on cookie technology. The system is designed to be implemented in a heterogenous environment with independent and diverse service providers. The communication between the servers is done via Web services. Additionally, plug-ins are available for other protocols that allow for easy integration of existing authentication and authorization components. A prototype system is operational at the Schroff Stiftungslehrstuhl Information Services and Electronic Markets.
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Paper Nr: 367
Title:

TOWARDS AN ALTERNATIVE WAY OF VERIFYING PROXY OBJECTS IN JINI

Authors:

Luminita Vasiu and Nikolaos Papamichail

Abstract: Jini networking technology represents an exciting paradigm in distributed systems. Its elegant approach in computer networking possesses immense advantages, but also generates security problems. Extensive research has been undertaken and existing security methodologies have been applied to provide a safe execution environment. However the unique nature of Jini has made it hard for traditional security mechanisms to be applied effectively. Part of the problem lies within the downloaded code and in the lack of centralised control. Current solutions are based on assumptions; therefore they are inadequate for enforcing the security requirements of the system. The goal of our research is to increase the security of the Jini model without altering its initial characteristics. We present our preliminary research efforts in providing an alternative, fault tolerant security architecture that uses a trusted local verifier in order to evaluate and certify the correctness of remote calls.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 48
Title:

A REAL-TIME INTRUSION PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE DATABASES

Authors:

Ulf Mattsson

Abstract: Modern intrusion detection systems are comprised of three basically different ap-proaches, host based, network based, and a third relatively recent addition called pro-cedural based detection. The first two have been extremely popular in the commercial market for a number of years now because they are relatively simple to use, understand and maintain. However, they fall prey to a number of shortcomings such as scaling with increased traffic requirements, use of complex and false positive prone signature databases, and their inability to detect novel intrusive attempts. This intrusion detection system interacts with the access control system to deny further access when detection occurs and represent a practical implementation addressing these and other concerns. This paper presents an overview of our work in creating a practical database intrusion detection system. Based on many years of Database Security Research, the proposed solution detects a wide range of specific and general forms of misuse, provides detailed reports, and has a low false-alarm rate. Traditional commercial implementations of database security mechanisms are very limited in defending successful data attacks. Authorized but malicious transactions can make a database useless by impairing its integrity and availability. The proposed solution offers the ability to detect misuse and subversion through the direct monitoring of database operations inside the database host, providing an important complement to host-based and network-based surveil-lance. Suites of the proposed solution may be deployed throughout a network, and their alarms man-aged, correlated, and acted on by remote or local subscribing security ser-vices, thus helping to address issues of decentralized management.
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Paper Nr: 112
Title:

OPTIMAL ANALYSIS OF A HYBRID AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM: WEB SECURITY VERSUS SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Authors:

Ben Soh, Ben Soh and Aaron Joy

Abstract: A web authentication system uses a number of functions to provide integrity of messages sent between the client and the web server. These include hash functions, public key encryption, and nonce length. In this paper, we present an optimal analysis of investigating the effects of some different parameters on the web security and performance of the authentication system. Our main aim is to devise a technique to achieve the best of both worlds: optimal web security and system performance. To the best of our knowledge, such approach is the first attempt to combine the two dependability attributes in a quantitative study.
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Paper Nr: 139
Title:

TRAINING NETWORK MANAGERS TO RECOGNISE INTRUSION ATTACKS

Authors:

Colin Pattinson and Kemal Hajdarevic

Abstract: One of the major challenges facing the e-Business community, and the broader telecommunications network world, is the threat of electronic attack. Of the sub-categories of such attacks, the denial of service attack, in which the intruder’s objective is to prevent legitimate users from accessing some or all of an organisation’s computing resource, regularly creates headlines in the popular press. Whilst significant research effort is being expended on the development of automated tools to recognise such attacks, for many businesses (particularly the small business sector) network management (including security and intrusion detection) is the responsibility of an individual employee (the “network manager”), among whose responsibilities is the observation and monitoring of network behaviour, and who will be expected to monitor data, detect the signs of intrusion, and take action, ideally before the attack has taken effect. Traditionally, this skill has developed through a hands-on process, learning “normal” behaviour, using this knowledge to detect anomalies, undertaking further investigation to determine more details of the cause. This will involve interaction with the “live” network, and the first experience of an attack will be when it actually occurs. This is counter to good training practice, in which a trainee will have had experience of “problem situations” in a controlled environment, and will have the opportunity to develop their responses, review actions and repeat the activity, so that when the situation occurs “for real”, responses are semi-automatic. This paper describes a simulation-based training tool in which student network managers experience the symptoms and effects of a denial of service attack and practice their responses in a controlled environment, with the aim of preparing them more effectively for the time they meet such an attack in reality.
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Paper Nr: 199
Title:

DETOUR PATH RESOURCE MANAGEMENT METHODS FOR IP SERVICE OPERATION

Authors:

Yu Miyoshi and Tatsuyuki Kimura

Abstract: In the conventional IP network, equipment has been managed by periodical SNMP polling and periodical ping by a network management system (NMS), and traps have been used when abnormalities occur. But it is difficult to operate a service related to network state changes by such a management method because IP network services are best-effort services, so they may be affected by other multiplexed traffic. In order to solve such problems, we propose a detour path resource management method for IP networks. We discuss its advantages and how to overcome problems and verify that IP network resource management that includes detour path management is sufficient for practical use.
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Paper Nr: 247
Title:

FACE RECOGNITION IN BIOMETRIC VENDING MACHINES

Authors:

Jose J. Astrain Escola, J. Villadangos, A. Córdoba and M. Prieto

Abstract: Many Biometric security systems are used to grant restricted access to certain resources. This paper presents a biometric system for automatic vending machines. It ensures that products submitted to legal restrictions are only sold to authorized purchasers. Making use of an identity card, the system checks if the purchaser verifies all the restrictions to authorize the product sale. No special cards or codes are needed, since the system only scans the ID card of the user and verifies that the purchaser is the ownership of the card taking a photograph. The simplicity of the system and the high recognition rates obtained make the biometric system an interesting element to be included in automatic vending machines in order to sell restricted products in certain areas.
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Paper Nr: 303
Title:

TOWARDS RUN-TIME PROTOCOL ANOMALY DETECTION AND VERIFICATION

Authors:

Inseon Yoo and Ulrich Ultes-Nitsche

Abstract: `How to verify incoming packets whether they follow standards or not?' and `How to detect protocol anomalies in real-time?', we seek to answer these questions. In order to solve these questions, we have designed a packet verifier with packet inspection and sanity check. In this work, we specify TCP transaction behaviours declaratively in a high-level language called Specification and Description Language (SDL). This specification will be then compiled into an inspection engine program for oberving packets. In addition, the SanityChecker covers protocol header anomalies.
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Paper Nr: 304
Title:

INTEGRATING A SIGNATURE MODULE IN SSL/TLS

Authors:

Ibrahim Hajjeh and Ahmed Serhrouchni

Abstract: SSL/TLS is currently the most deployed security protocol on the Internet. SSL/TLS provides end-to-end secure communications between two entities with authentication and data protection. However, what is missing from the protocol is a way to provide the non-repudiation service. In this paper, we describe a generic implementation of the non-repudiation service as an optional module in the SSL/TLS protocol. This approach provides both parties with evidence that the transaction has taken place and a clear separation with application design and development. We discuss the motivation for our approach and our proposed architecture.
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Paper Nr: 312
Title:

E-PAYMENT SECURITY - Recommendations about the use of a PKI for e-payment security

Authors:

Hanan El Bakkali

Abstract: The security of the electronic payment requires not only the deployment of cryptographic technologies such as encoding and the electronic signature, but above all, the existence of third parties of confidence whose role is to enable the users of electronic payment applications to have confidence in the use of these technologies. In general, Authorities of Certification belonging to the same infrastructure of management and publication of public keys, commonly called Public Key Infrastructure or PKI, can ensure the role of these third parties of confidence. In this paper, first of all, I will pass in review the various methods of electronic payment. Then, the requirements of the participants of these methods will be presented. Finally, I will introduce some elements of response to the question on which this paper is focused: "Which PKI for the electronic payment security". Indeed, I will present my recommendations concerning both the desirable qualities and the characteristics of such a PKI, namely, the nature of its entities, its trust model and the format of its certificates.
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Paper Nr: 315
Title:

AN HIGH PERFORMANCE TRAFFIC ENGINEERING MODEL FOR ALL-OPTICAL NETWORKS - Evolutionary GMPLS control plane services in all-optical cross-connects

Authors:

Francesco Palmieri

Abstract: One of the major issues in the networking industry today is the tremendous demand for more and more bandwidth. With the development of all-optical networks and the use of Dense Wavelength Division Multi-plexing (DWDM) technology, a new and probably very crucial milestone is being reached in network evolu-tion. In this scenario, carriers need powerful, commercially viable and scalable tools that can be used to bal-ance the traffic load on the various fiber links/wavelengths and optical switches in the network so that none of these components is over utilized or underutilized. Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) is actually the most promising technology, which will play a key role in future IP pure optical networks by providing the necessary bridges between the IP and optical layers to deliver effective traffic engineering features and allow for interoperable and scalable parallel growth in the IP and photonic dimension. This pa-per propose an integrated control plane approach that will combine existing GMPLS control plane tech-niques with the point-and-click provisioning capabilities of photonic switches to set up optical channel trails and to distribute optical transport network topology state information. The GMPLS control plane will sup-port various traffic engineering functions, and enable a variety of protection and restoration capabilities, while simplifying the integration of photonic switches and label switching routers.
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Paper Nr: 319
Title:

DESIGN OF INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM AT USER LEVEL WITH SYSTEM-CALL INTERPOSING

Authors:

Toshihiro Tabata and Kouichi Sakurai

Abstract: As computers have become widely used, software vulnerability is now one of the most serious security threats. In particular, viruses and worms that use buffer overflow vulnerabilities are serious threats to computers. Therefore, techniques to detect the execution of malicious code are required when taking measures to prevent intrusion using such software vulnerabilities. An intrusion detection system is an example of such a defence mechanism against such attacks. The improvement in both false positive and false negative ratios, together with reduction of overhead are the problems to be overcome in an intrusion detection system. This paper presents the design of a user level intrusion detection system. This system can monitor the execution of target programs at both user and kernel levels. The access control function is divided between user and kernel. Access rights may also be checked with appropriate timing and with low overhead.
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Area 3 - Wireless Communication Systems and Networks

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

A BANDWIDTH DETERMINED MOBILE MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

Authors:

Kevin Curran, Anthony Solon and Paul M. Kevitt

Abstract: This paper presents the initial stages of research at the University of Ulster into a mobile intelligent multimedia presentation system called TeleMorph. TeleMorph aims to dynamically generate multimedia presentations using output modalities that are determined by the bandwidth available on a mobile device’s wireless connection. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this research TeleTuras, a tourist information guide for the city of Derry will implement the solution provided by TeleMorph, thus demonstrating its effectiveness. This paper does not focus on the multimodal content composition but rather concentrates on the motivation for & issues surrounding such intelligent tourist systems.
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Paper Nr: 69
Title:

PLANNING TOOL FOR LMDS COVERAGE USING 3D GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATA

Authors:

Landaabalo Agba, Bernard Jecko and Laure Freytag

Abstract: Local Multipoint Distribution Services (LMDS) Network operating in 40.5 – 43.5 GHz band in Europe requires relevant planning tool for its deployment. An accurate knowledge of the propagation environment (buildings, trees…) is necessary especially in urban areas. This paper presents software based on Ray Tracing method using 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) database. Several series of simulations were done and the effects on propagation issues of some parameters were interpreted. Measurements were also achieved and were compared with simulation curves. Finally, cosecant-squared and switch beam antennas are briefly presented as solutions to avoid shadowed zones and to improve coverage area.
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Paper Nr: 96
Title:

ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE - Impact on the Capacity of WCDMA/FDD Networks

Authors:

Daniel Figueiredo, Pedro Matos, António Rodrigues and Nuno Cota

Abstract: The adjacent channel interference (ACI) can result in a reduced network capacity in a multioperator WCDMA/FDD environment. This paper is devoted to the study of the ACI, using a static simulator. Simulations were performed in order to identify particular scenarios and network compositions where ACI plays a major role in the system capacity. On the basis of the results, the authors identify the best strategy for frequency deployment within the available spectrum. It is demonstrated that the macro carrier should be located in the centre of the frequency band, protected from the ACI introduced by other operators. It is, in fact, the carrier which suffers the greatest losses caused by the increase in ACI. Furthermore, the micro carrier should be placed as close as possible to the adjacent channel of other operators in order to maximize system capacity.
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Paper Nr: 109
Title:

CARE-OF-PREFIX ROUTING FOR MOVING NETWORKS IN MOBILE IP NETWORK

Authors:

Toshihiro Suzuki, Ken Igarashi, Hiroshi Kawakami and Akira Miura

Abstract: The future ubiquitous network will serve so many mobile terminals that it is extremely important to control them efficiently. One useful approach is to group terminals having similar movement characteristics and manage them in units of groups. Another important issue is the mobility management of moving networks, such as a network on a train or in a car, or a personal area network. Moving networks may be defined for a variety of situations and can lead to a lot of attractive applications. Moving network mobility support is indeed one of the most interesting research topics. In this paper, we clarify the difference between host mobility support and the conventional moving network mobility support, propose a mechanism for moving network mobility support and shows it is better than the conventional ones.
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Paper Nr: 111
Title:

PERFORMANCE OF ENHANCED-UMTS HSDPA USING TRANSMIT DIVERSITY AND POWER CONTROL SCHEMES

Authors:

João Silva, Nuno Souto, António Rodrigues, Américo Correia, Francisco Cercas and Nuno Cota

Abstract: This paper addresses the performance of the downlink High Speed Data Packet Access (HSDPA) in QPSK mode. Transmit Diversity (TD) enhancement schemes such as Space Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) and Selective Transmit Diversity (STD), alongside a Power Control (PC) scheme, are covered to improve the system capacity. To evaluate the performance and the advantages of all the schemes under different conditions, several combinations of these were simulated in the AWGN, Indoor A and Pedestrian A channels. For the best combination, a gain of 11.5dB can be achieved, for a BLER of 1%.
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Paper Nr: 125
Title:

SERVICE INTEGRATION BETWEEN WIRELESS SYSTEMS: A core-level approach to internetworking

Authors:

Paulo Pinto, Luis Bernardo and Pedro Sobral

Abstract: The greater bandwidth provided by wireless LANs can be a precious asset to the wireless ubiquitous computing if the integration with 3GPP systems is done at a certain level. This paper presents a proposal to integrate wireless systems at core network level. Service integration becomes very powerful and easy. The system is not so dependent on the critical latency of vertical handovers and the users feel a unique system providing services. Little changes are required to the current 3GPP core network. Our architecture uses the GPRS as the primary network and integrates WLANs as secondary networks, used on an availability basis. Sessions on secondary networks survive disconnection periods contributing to a seamless service provision to the user. The paper describes the overall architecture, the changes that are needed at the current 3GPP core, and the operation of the secondary networks on the aspects of data routing and security associations. Highlights about the application model are presented at the end.
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Paper Nr: 131
Title:

MOBILITY SUPPORT AND SOFT HANDOVER PROTOCOL FOR IP-NETWORKS

Authors:

Jukka Mäkelä, Timo Hämäläinen, Gábor Fekete, Jorma Narikka and Anna-Maija Virkki

Abstract: In this paper, a handover mechanism that offers soft handover support between two different IP subnets for mobile clients is introduced. This handover is a part of a whole mobility support protocol consisting of several components. The handover is based on a protocol that introduces new methods for updating the location of mobile nodes. The handover is designed to cause no or minimal packet loss and be fast. It uses two different interfaces for achieving it.
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Paper Nr: 153
Title:

SPUR: A SECURED PROTOCOL FOR UMTS REGISTRATION

Authors:

Manel Abdelkader and Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract: This paper presents a new scheme for mobile identication and registration in UMTS networks. Our approach attempts to alleviate different limitations observed with the current solutions (such as the 3GPP). It guarantees the protection of the data transmitted on the SIP messages during the registration procedure. Our method provides the authentication of the main entities involved in the registration procedure. It develops a mechanism for the management of relating security associations.
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Paper Nr: 153
Title:

SPUR: A SECURED PROTOCOL FOR UMTS REGISTRATION

Authors:

Manel Abdelkader and Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract: This paper presents a new scheme for mobile identication and registration in UMTS networks. Our approach attempts to alleviate different limitations observed with the current solutions (such as the 3GPP). It guarantees the protection of the data transmitted on the SIP messages during the registration procedure. Our method provides the authentication of the main entities involved in the registration procedure. It develops a mechanism for the management of relating security associations.
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Paper Nr: 155
Title:

PROVIDING QOS IN 3G-WLAN ENVIRONMENT WITH RSVP AND DIFFSERV

Authors:

Eero Wallenius, Jyrki Joutsensalo, Timo Nihtilä and Timo Hämäläinen

Abstract: Here we present the end-to-end QoS mechanism in 3G-multiaccess network environment. As multi-access wireless WLAN and wired xDSL wideband multi-access technologies has emerge and become more popular a need for interoperability with different technologies and domains has become necessity. There is also a need for end-to-end QoS management. We show a scenario where the UE-GGSN connection is covered by RSVP and RAN network part uses partial over dimensioning and real-time controlled ATM queuing. DiffServ covers WLAN-Core QoS and radio interface between WLAN AP and WLAN UE uses IEEE’s 802.11e. Our interest is to find out how well 3G traffic classes can survive in different traffic conditions in the end-to-end case.
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Paper Nr: 159
Title:

A SMART HANDOFF PROCEDURE IN 4G NETWORKS

Authors:

Yuseung Jeong, Namgi Kim and Hyunsoo Yoon

Abstract: For the next generation mobile communication systems, all IP packet networks instead of the legacy networks that are mixture of circuit and packet switching services have been studied to guarantee the high-speed data transfer rate even in the high-speed mobile environments. In the packet networks, the rate that mobile users are serviced varies according to the number of users in a single cell. Moreover, as the adaptive modulation and coding adjusts the data rate in terms of channel conditions, the service quality are dominated by two components; service rate by cell load and data rate by channel conditions. Therefore, we propose the smart handoff procedure considering both the service rate and the data rate for the service quality in the next generation communication systems.
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Paper Nr: 195
Title:

A DYNAMIC SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION TOOL FOR UMTS FDD

Authors:

Nuno Cota and António Rodrigues

Abstract: This paper presents a tool for dynamic simulation of radio resources in UMTS FDD. The developed tool provides an integrated environment for users scenario definition, environment edition, base stations planning, simulation and analysis. This tool can also be used to evaluate the impact of new services, different system settings or new subscriber profiles, in the system’s global performance. For implementing the different mechanisms of WCDMA radio technology, the simulation tool kernel was supported by a system-level, dynamic, stochastic and event driven simulation model. Both uplink and downlink directions are considered, including soft handover connections. The final results confirm the developed tool validity and its good functionality in relation to simulation scenario definition, simulation and analysis phases.
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Paper Nr: 197
Title:

A SECURE CREDITING PROTOCOL FOR HYBRID CELLULAR AND AD-HOC NETWORKS

Authors:

Bogdan Carbunar, Ioannis Ioannidis, Ananth Grama and Jan Vitek

Abstract: While wireless networking seems to be the way of the future, no definite architecture for large scale deployment of such networks has emerged. This can be attributed to financial reasons (a specialized infrastructure is too expensive to build) as well as to the lack of solutions that could work with an existing infrastructure or, in an ad hoc manner, without one. A viable alternative seems to be hybrid wireless networks. Such networks use the existing cellular telephony infrastructure as basis and enhance it by building ad hoc networks of traffic relayers around each cell, improving the overall throughtput and reliability of the network. These relayers are users of the network that are willing to operate as such. In this setting, both efficiency and security are vital properties. We propose SCP as an integrated solution for secure routing and crediting in hybrid networks. We describe how a secure environment can be established efficiently by financially motivating users to avoid attacks. Finally, we show that SCP imposes minimal load both in communication and computation, so that even regular cellular phones can function as relayers, without demanding infrastructure upgrades.
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Paper Nr: 206
Title:

INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS AND RADIO PLANNING FOR WLANS

Authors:

Rui J. Lopes, António Serrador and Paulo Freixo

Abstract: WLANs are nowadays at the top of the mass market networks technologies. They are essentially implemented indoors, where the traditional planning tools are not yet focused. In spite of the concern to improve the radio planning quality, the existing propagation models can still be sharpened for better outcomes, mainly in large buildings. A new propagation model is proposed and evaluated with measurements at 2.4GHz and also a planning tool is presented, with the ability to execute coverage and capacity analysis on indoor multi-floors environments. This model adapts itself to multiple indoor scenarios following the performed measurements.
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Paper Nr: 209
Title:

THE EFFECTS OF INTERELEMENT SPACING IN LINEAR ARRAYS ON THROUGHPUT PERFORMANCE IN AD HOC NETWORKS

Authors:

Sonia Furman, David E. Hammers and Mario Gerla

Abstract: With the high demand for improved signal link quality in ad hoc networks, devices configured with omnidirectional antennas can no longer meet the growing needs in throughput performance, and alternative approaches using antenna arrays that provide directional radiation patterns are sought. This study models an 8-element linear antenna array and examines the effects of interelement spacing of the array on the ad hoc network’s throughput performance. We show through simulation, that as a result of the antenna array, the throughput performance of the network consistently improved compared to that with an omnidirectional antenna. Interestingly, we determined that the maximum increase in performance of over 150% was attained with the smallest interelement spacing of 0.5λ rather than with the larger interelement spacing and higher gain. With null-steering, this performance increased even further to 180%.
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Paper Nr: 219
Title:

QUALITY OF SERVICE PERFORMANCES IN AD HOC IEEE 802.11 WIRELESS LANS

Authors:

Maria S. Iacobucci, Fabio Graziosi and Panfilo Ventresca

Abstract: WLAN is a wireless network which provides connectivity in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 is the most widespread standard for wireless LANs, but it is not suitable for real time services. The draft standard IEEE802.11e provides solutions for Quality of Service (QoS), and maintains the compatibility with the IEEE802.11 standard. The paper, after a brief introduction on the WLAN technology, describes the IEEE802.e solutions for QoS and provides simulation results in an ad hoc network with different loads. It is shown that QoS in an ad hoc network can be provided with completely distributed techniques even if the network is heavy loaded with real time services.
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Paper Nr: 235
Title:

BER PERFORMANCE SIMULATION IN LOS ENVIRONMENT FOR FIXED BROADBAND WIRELESS ACCESS SYSTEM

Authors:

Min K. Tang and Tharek Abdul Rahman

Abstract: This paper presents a straightforward bit error rate (BER) performance simulation methodology that can be readily used for FBWA system with environment effects being taken into consideration. This work begins with physical layer modelling of a current market available fixed broadband wireless access (FBWA) system.Then, with the eight modelled line of sight (LOS) channels obtained from prediction and measurement, BER performance of the system in the related environment is simulated. The FBWA system is a high performance and high-speed wireless Ethernet bridge terminal, which operates in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) band of 5.8 GHz with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless transmission. Tests and verifications have been carried out in the simulation tools in order to ensure the modelled system is conforming the standard and specifications of the actual system. With the physical layer system template and the channel models that represent the real environment, the BER computations are obtained.
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Paper Nr: 248
Title:

EFFECTS OF VARIABLE BIT RATE VOCODER ON VOIP QOS

Authors:

Yael D. Rosenberg, Ariel Frank and Salomon Serfaty

Abstract: Transmission of voice over packet switched networks, such as the Internet (VoIP), has been gradually evolving due to the advantages it can provide to the different end-users (private user, integrated networks service providers, business arena, etc). However, in order for VoIP to be commonly used, the Quality of Service (QoS) offered by VoIP needs to be at least as high as the traditional Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS).In this research, we aim to improve the QoS parameters of the developing VoIP technology by substituting the traditional constant bit rate vocoder (CRV) with a new type of vocoder that is based on continuously variable bit rate (CVRV). Comparative studies of these two vocoders are performed in the following 3 independent scenarios: 1. LAN, in which the connected terminals transfer/receive voice only. 2. LAN, in which the terminals exchange mixed traffic classes of both voice and data. 3. WLAN, in which the connected terminals transfer/receive voice only. The results of scenario 3 show a significant improvement in performance with use of CVRV in WLAN when more than 50 terminals are involved, as exhibited in all the QoS parameters that were tested. The results of the WLAN are especially interesting and significant as the WLAN is becoming progressively more common nowadays.
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Paper Nr: 250
Title:

USING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY TO DEVELOP A VIRTUAL REALITY COMMAND AND CONTROL CENTRE

Authors:

Damian Green, Neville Stanton, Guy Walker and Paul Salmon

Abstract: This paper investigates the applicability of wireless communication systems for use in a command and control environment. Human positional data is transmitted over a wireless network. This data is then used to update a highly accurately modelled real-time 3D environment of the surroundings, with avatars positioned at the transmitted points. The data is displayed on a stereoscopic 3D screen enabling novel automatic tracking of human movement and allowing for more rapid and informed tactical decision making. This system has applicability in a variety of situations including Command and Control in essential services – fire, rescue and military.
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Paper Nr: 298
Title:

FAST MOBILE IPV6 APPROACH FOR WIRELESS LAN BASED NETWORKS - Link-Layer Triggering Support for IEEE 802.11

Authors:

Norbert Jordan and Alexander Poropatich

Abstract: The standard Mobile IPv6 specification provides comprehensive mobility management for the IPv6 proto-col. During the handover there is a period in which the mobile node is unable to send or receive packets due to link-layer switching and IPv6 protocol layer operations. This overall handoff latency resulting from base-line MIPv6 procedures, namely movement detection, new care-of address configuration, and binding up-dates with peer entities, is often unacceptable for any kind of real-time service (video-conferencing, voice-over-IP,…). A new fast handover approach, based on Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6, is proposed in this paper, which will support seamless movement in between IPv6 domains using a IEEE 802.11 network infra-structure. A new low latency handoff method for IEEE 802.11 will be proposed, where access point beacons are utilized for carrying IPv6 prefix information without altering the Mobile IP or IEEE 802.11 specifica-tions. A WLAN service will continuously monitor the radio signal quality of the attached access point and, if necessary, will switch to another access point in range. This feature and the elimination of firmware-based active scanning during link-layer handovers have the flavor effect of reducing the overall link-layer handoff delay to about 10%. We will further introduce our wireless testbed infrastructure for evaluation of the pro-posed approach. Performance evaluation is used to verify the effectiveness of our implementation and an extensive simulative comparison is used for scalability analyses.
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Paper Nr: 301
Title:

WIRELESS NETWORKS EFFICIENCY STUDY BASED ON METEOROLOGICAL DATA MEASUREMENTS

Authors:

Fernando Machado, Cristina Enjamio, Perfecto Mariño, Fernando P. Fontán and Santiago Otero

Abstract: Wireless access networks based in millimetre wavelength technologies are mainly impaired by rain. To evaluate the rain effects over a communication system, it is essential to know the temporal and spatial evolution of rainfall rate. For this reason, it is necessary to develop an experimental network which provides the adequate data to study, prevent and compensate the rain fade. In this paper, an experimental rain gauge network is presented. This network comprises weather stations capable of measuring rainfall rate, temperature and humidity. The paper rst describes the experimental network for automatic data acquisition as a system based in a distributed process. The design of the experimental network is explained in detail and nally the interest in millimetre wavelength applications is pointed out.
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Paper Nr: 308
Title:

A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM FOR THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS NETWORKS

Authors:

Nikolaos Koutsouris, Panagiotis Demestichas, Louisa Papadopoulou, George Koundourakis, Dimitris Kouis, Vera Stavroulaki and Nikolas Mitrou

Abstract: In a composite radio environment, different wireless access technologies can be co-operating components of a combined heterogeneous infrastructure. The exploitation of a wireless system, operating in a composite radio context, requires upgraded service and network management capabilities. This paper presents an integrated management system and gives evidence of its capability of optimising service delivery and traffic distribution in a prototype composite radio environment comprised of three different wireless network technologies, i.e., GPRS, 802.11b WLAN, and DVB-T.
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Paper Nr: 327
Title:

CDMA2000 1X CAPACITY DECREASE BY POWER CONTROL ERROR IN HIGH SPEED TRAIN ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Simon Shin, Tae-Kyun Park, Byeung-Cheol Kim and Dongwoo Kim

Abstract: CDMA2000 1X capacity was analysed in the high speed train environment. We calculated the power control error by Doppler shift and simulated bit error rate (BER) at the base station. We made the interference model and calculated the BER from lower bound of power control error variance. The reverse link BER was increased by high velocity although there was no coverage reduction. Capacity decrease was negligible in the pedestrian (5 km/h), urban vehicular(40 km/h), highway and railroad(100 km/h) environment. However, capacity was severely reduced in high speed train condition(300 km/h and 350 km/h). Cell-planning considering capacity as well as coverage is essential for successful cellular service in high speed train.
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Paper Nr: 353
Title:

A Novel Blind Estimation Algorithm of Timing Offset for PCC-OFDM system

Authors:

Zhao Zhongwei and Wang Anding

Abstract: This paper presents a novel blind estimation algorithm of timing offset for polynomial cancellation coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PCC-OFDM) system. The estimation is carried out in the time domain. A timing metric function based on the waveform property of PCC-OFDM system in the time domain is constructed and the correct timing point is calculated by extend a timing metric, which result in no training symbols, pilot tones or cyclic prefix extensions required. The performance is simulated effectively that the estimator is convergence in one symbol with lower error.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 134
Title:

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A SPLIT-LAYER MULTICAST MECHANISM WITH H.26L VIDEO CODING SCHEME

Authors:

Naveen Chilamkurti, Ben Soh and Sri Vijaya Gutala

Abstract: Support for video transmission is rapidly becoming a common requirement. Video coding schemes such as H.26L are combined with multilayer multicast protocols such as SPLIT to improve the quality of video received at the receiver. In this paper, we built a simulation system using a modified version of JVT (Joint Video Team) encoding / decoding software package and Network Simulator NS-2, to evaluate H.26L video transmission over SPLIT. System performance was observed in terms of Loss Ratio, Video Jitter, throughput and PSNR for quality of the transmitted video.
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Paper Nr: 149
Title:

A MOBILE SERVICE GATEWAY FOR MOBILE ACCESS TO ENTERPRISE DATA AND SERVICES

Authors:

Xueshan Shan

Abstract: We present the architecture of an enterprise mobile service gateway for secure mobile access to distributed, autonomous, and heterogeneous enterprise data and services using browser-based thin-client. Our goal is to address key issues associated with mobile access to enterprise information, while minimizing the cost of service integration by leveraging existing infrastructure and business applications. Our approach achieves high extensibility and interoperability through Web Services based integration scheme and modularized device and gateway adaptation. The security and firewall issues are addressed through the loose coupling between the mobile service gateway and enterprise applications, the separation of mobile proxy and presentation server, and the two-way access control. The combination of home-deck browsing, notification, click-to-dial, and speech access interaction paradigms alleviates the limitations of small keypad and display and brings mobile users rich and personalized user experience. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the significance of cost-effective mobile extension of enterprise services using our approach.
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Paper Nr: 204
Title:

AN ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW-BASED FAST HANDOVER METHOD FOR MOBILE IPV6 NETWORK

Authors:

Jani Puttonen, Ari Viinikainen, Timo Hämäläinen and Miska Sulander

Abstract: Mobile IPv6 has been proposed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to be the solution to mobility management in IPv6 network. The work is now culminating to a standard status. But, one problem still remaining is the length of the handover time, which might cause packet loss. Thus the handover time should be as short as possible. Especially the real-time traffic suffers from packet loss. Earlier we have introduced a new method for faster handover process in Mobile IPv6 network called the Flow-based Fast Handover Method for Mobile IPv6 (FFHMIPv6). FFHMIPv6 uses the flow state information stored in the routers for the fast redirection of the flow. In this paper we compare the proposed FFHMIPv6 protocol to other methods using both theoretical analysis and Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) simulations.
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Paper Nr: 262
Title:

MOBILE VIDEOPHONES FOR SIGNED LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIONS

Authors:

Kazuo Kamata, Takeaki Shionome and Hideo Yamamoto

Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) provide various kinds of information and communication services. For some people, however, their capabilities affect the accessibility to these services and terminal equipment. It must be ensured that the information and communication services of the Information Society are designed to be accessible from all. In this report we show certain results of our on-going project on signed language communication services by mobile videophones. The mobile videophones have an interesting feature of portability, but have certain difficulties in signed language production and perception due to the small size of displays. In this report we show the experimental results for Japanese Signed Language perception by small sizes of pictures. From the present results and previous experimental results, we discuss possible information and communication services by a signed language using mobile videophones from the user’s point of view: How well a user can perform his/her intended information activities under a particular use situation. This concept leads to another term, User-Based Quality of Service (UbQoS), which uses measure parameters of user’s attitude to the services at a particular situation, and includes human and social factors in addition to usual technological ones.
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Paper Nr: 349
Title:

UGSP: AUTHENTICATION BASED SECURE PROTOCOL FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

Authors:

Neelima Arora and R. K. Shyamasundar

Abstract: A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with no fixed infrastructure. Security in such networks poses serious challenges due to (i) the network connectivity could be intermittent and hence on-line authentication is not guaranteed, and (ii) susceptible to wide range of attacks due to broadcast communication and large scale number of users. In this paper, we propose a security protocol, called UGSP, for wireless ad-hoc networks using a tamper-proof hardware. We show that the proposed protocol fits well with the resurrecting duckling security paradigm (Stajano and Anderson, 1999). Once the hardware is imprinted for authentication, UGSP is robust to man-in-the-middle attack, passive eavesdropping, active impersonation attacks ensuring source authentication, data confidentiality and data integrity for communication amongst nodes with identically configured hardware. The system is amenable to dynamic addition of new members whose hardware has also been imprinted with authentication information. We provide a comparative evaluation of UGSP with other approaches and show that UGSP is scalable and cost-effective.
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Paper Nr: 349
Title:

UGSP: AUTHENTICATION BASED SECURE PROTOCOL FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

Authors:

Neelima Arora and R. K. Shyamasundar

Abstract: A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with no fixed infrastructure. Security in such networks poses serious challenges due to (i) the network connectivity could be intermittent and hence on-line authentication is not guaranteed, and (ii) susceptible to wide range of attacks due to broadcast communication and large scale number of users. In this paper, we propose a security protocol, called UGSP, for wireless ad-hoc networks using a tamper-proof hardware. We show that the proposed protocol fits well with the resurrecting duckling security paradigm (Stajano and Anderson, 1999). Once the hardware is imprinted for authentication, UGSP is robust to man-in-the-middle attack, passive eavesdropping, active impersonation attacks ensuring source authentication, data confidentiality and data integrity for communication amongst nodes with identically configured hardware. The system is amenable to dynamic addition of new members whose hardware has also been imprinted with authentication information. We provide a comparative evaluation of UGSP with other approaches and show that UGSP is scalable and cost-effective.
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Area 4 - Multimedia Signal Processing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 44
Title:

IMAGE AUTHENTICATION USING HIERARCHICAL SEMI-FRAGILE WATERMARKS

Authors:

Yuan-liang Tang and Chun-hung Chen

Abstract: In this paper, a semi-fragile watermarking technique operating in the wavelet domain is proposed. A hierarchy of the image blocks is constructed and the image features are extracted such that relationships among image blocks are established in order to enhance the security and robustness of the system. With such a hierarchy, the image can be authenticated at different levels of resolution, hence providing a good property of tamper localization. In addition, by varying certain parameters, the system is able to control the degree of robustness against non-malicious attacks. The proposed algorithm thus provides a fine trade-off between security and localization, and is also robust to common image processing operations.
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Paper Nr: 122
Title:

INTERWORKING BETWEEN THE RSW CONTROL CRITERIA AND SIP STANDARD

Authors:

Omar Abouabdalla and Sureswaran Ramadass

Abstract: Various standards organizations have considered signaling for voice and video over IP from different approaches. There are currently more than one standard for signaling and control of Internet telephone calls. Some of them, which widely used are RSW control protocol and the IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Both protocols provide comparable functionality using different mechanisms and provide similar quality of service. Although there are numerous industry debates about the merits of the two protocols, the truth is that both of them, along with other complementary protocols, are necessary to provide universal access and to support IP-based enhanced services. Both protocols have been widely deployed, so interworking between RSW and SIP is essential to ensure full end-to-end connectivity. Because of the inherent differences between RSW and SIP, accommodation must be made to allow interworking between the two protocols. The work reported in this paper proposes a communication translation protocol to bridge the RSW control protocol and SIP control protocol. This communication translation protocol has to provide a set of rules to enable communications between the RSW control criteria and SIP standards. The communication translation entity defined can be called translator server.
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Paper Nr: 135
Title:

MPEG-21 IN BROADCASTING role in the digital transition of broadcasting

Authors:

Itaru Kaneko, Artur Lugmayr, Seppo Kalli, Abdellatif Benjelloun Touimi, Jong-Nam Kim, Claudio Alberti, Sadigurschi Yona, Jaejoon Kim and Maria Teresa Andrade

Abstract: The transition to digital in the TV broadcasting industry is already gradually being performed while the complete digital switchover seems now possible to be accomplished within the near future. This article describes and analyses this phenomenon and the role of MPEG-21 may play in it. MPEG-21 is the ISO/IEC standard currently under development in MPEG (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). Unlike preceding MPEG standards - MPEG-21 does not specify a coding format of the content but rather a set of standards to ease transactions of multimedia content and the provision of digital multimedia services in heterogeneous network environments, including broadcast. In this paper, we highlight the role of MPEG-21 in broadcasting, in particular in the deployment of digital TV services.
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Paper Nr: 137
Title:

FAST EVENT DETECTION IN MPEG VIDEO

Authors:

Sérgio Faria, Rui Marcelino and Vitor Silva

Abstract: Many video applications, such as surveillance systems are continuously increasing and the amount of processed and stored data has risen exponentially. In order to manage efficiently this video information, motion detection is necessary. This feature is required to analyze, organize and store compressed video. In this paper, we present an effective video event detection method, which uses information embedded in the MPEG-4 bit stream to detect true motion in the scenario, avoiding other features like scene cuts and camera translation, zooming, pan, tilt and oscillations These events can be detected very fast and with low computational complexity, as only few parameters of the compressed data are processed. This algorithm mainly relies on the amount of signal variation of AC coefficients, between co-localized intra coded blocks, and the amount of motion compensated coded macroblocks within inter coded frames. Our results have shown that this algorithm can perform not only accurate motion detection, but also identifying false motion due to camera movements.
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Paper Nr: 158
Title:

AUDIO WATERMARKING QUALITY EVALUATION

Authors:

Andres Garay

Abstract: The recent explosion of the Internet as a collaborative medium has opened the door for people who want to share their work. Nonetheless, the advantages of such an open medium can pose very serious problems for authors who do not want their works to be distributed without their consent. As new methods for copyright protection are devised, expectations around them are formed and sometimes improvable claims are made. This paper covers one such technology: audio watermarking. First, the framework is set for the objective measurement of such techniques. After this, the remainder of the document proposes a test and a set of metrics for thorough benchmarking of audio watermarking schemes. The development of such a benchmark constitutes a first step towards the standardization of the requirements and properties that such systems should display.
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Paper Nr: 233
Title:

BAYER PATTERN COMPRESSION BY PREDICTION ERRORS VECTOR QUANTIZATION

Authors:

Antonio Buemi, Arcangelo R. Bruna, Alessandro Capra and Filippo Vella

Abstract: Most digital cameras acquire data through a Bayer Colour Filter Array (CFA) placed on sensors where each pixel element records intensity information of only one colour component. The colour image is then produced through a pipeline of image processing algorithms which restores the subsampled components. In the last few years the wide diffusion of Digital Still Cameras (DSC) and mobile imaging devices disposes to develop new coding techniques able to save resources needed to store and to transmit Bayer pattern data. This paper introduces an innovative coding method that allows achieving compression by Vector Quantization (VQ) applied to prediction errors, among adjacent pixel of Bayer Pattern source, computed by a Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)-like algorithm. The proposed method allows a visually lossless compression of Bayer data and it requires less memory and transmission bandwidth than classic “Bayer-oriented” compression methods.
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Paper Nr: 291
Title:

APPLICATION LEVEL SESSION HAND-OFF MANAGEMENT IN A UBIQUITOUS MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Letian Rong and Ian Burnett

Abstract: This paper focuses on one of the most important aspects of user mobility in a ubiquitous mobile environment: application session hand-off management. Here we use the term Session Mobility to define the ability of handling application session hand-offs among mobile devices. The paper summarizes the current research in the field and addresses the important facets and the missing “ingredients” of these treatments. We then propose an architecture to support and manage application session transfers based on the MPEG-21 multimedia framework. This takes advantage of Digital Items and adaptation metadata to provide a standards-based approach to the problem. Finally, we validated our framework using a test-bed which provides for dynamic multimedia adaptation.
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Paper Nr: 297
Title:

REMOVE MULTIMEDIA SERVER BOTTLENECK BY NETWORK ATTACHED DISK ARRAY WITH HETEROGENEOUS DUAL CHANNELS

Authors:

Dan Feng, Fang Wang, Yuhui Deng and Jiangling Zhang

Abstract: Multimedia service is pervasive on the Internet now and continues to grow rapidly. Most multimedia service provider systems have adopted a typical system architecture in which the storage devices are attached privately to the server. When a client browses some multimedia data from the server, data should be fetched from the storage devices and then forwarded to the client by the server. Unfortunately, with the steady growth of Internet subscribers, the multimedia server quickly becomes a system bottleneck. Network attached Disk Array is proposed to solve the bottleneck problem. There are two different channels in the disk array. One is a traditional peripheral bus to make the disk array work as a normal storage system. And the other is network interface to transfer data between clients and the disk array directly. The architecture avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the multimedia server and storage devices when clients download/upload data from/to the server. The latency is less than that with the traditional architecture and the average data transfer rate is higher. The system performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated through a prototype implementation based on the logical separation in the File Transfer Protocol. In multi-user environment, its data transfer rate is 2~3 times higher than that with a traditional disk array, and service time is about 3 times shorter. The most salient feature of the architecture is that it eliminates the server bottleneck, while dynamically increasing system bandwidth with the expansion of storage system capacity.
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Paper Nr: 302
Title:

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS STUDY OF MULTICAST TRAFFIC IN STAR-BASED LOCAL WDM LIGHTWAVE NETWORKS

Authors:

Rabi Habash, Borhanuddin Ali, Mohd Dani Baba, Mat Ikram Yusof and Muhammad Ibrahim

Abstract: Multicasting refers to a one-to-many network connection. Many-to-one and many-to-many connections are also categorized as multicasting. In a broadcast-and-select single-hop WDM network the only way to transmit information successfully is to have both source's transmitter and destination's receiver tuned to the same channel. The cost, scalability and efficiency issues of these approaches inspired researchers to study different ways in which the physical medium can be shared efficiently. In this paper, we study multicast traffic in single-hop local WDM optical networks based on a broadcast-and-select system. We use an approximate analytical solution to show the influence of tuning delay on the system performance under different network conditions. We also examine the effect of average packet delay on receiver throughput. Finally, we demonstrate the channel blocking probability versus network offered load characteristics.
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Paper Nr: 318
Title:

KNOWLEDGE AND CONTENT-BASED AUDIO RETRIEVAL USING WORDNET

Authors:

Pedro Cano, Markus Koppenberger, Sylvain Le Groux, Perfecto Herrera, Julien Ricard and Nicolas Wack

Abstract: Sound producers create the sound that goes along the image in cinema and video productions, as well as spots and documentaries. Some sounds are recorded for the occasion. Many occasions, however, require the engineer to have access to massive libraries of music and sound effects. Of the three major facets of audio in post-production: music, speech and sound effects, this document focuses on sound effects (Sound FX or SFX). Main professional on-line sound-fx providers offer their collections using standard text-retrieval technologies. Library construction is an error-prone and labor consuming task. Moreover, the ambiguity and informality of natural languages affects the quality of the search. The use of ontologies alleviates some of the ambiguity problems inherent to natural languages, yet it is very complicated to devise and maintain an ontology that account for the level of detail needed in a production-size sound effect management system. To address this problem we use WordNet, an ontology that organizes over 100.000 concepts of real world knowledge: e.g: it relates doors to locks, to wood and to the actions of opening, closing or knocking. However a fundamental issue remains: sounds without caption are invisible to the users. Content-based audio tools offer perceptual ways of navigating the audio collections, like “nd similar sound”, even if unlabeled, or query-byexample, possibly restricting the search to a semantic subspace, such as “vehicles”. The proposed contentbased technologies also allow semi-automatic sound annotation. We describe the integration of semanticallyenhanced management of metadata using WordNet together with content-based methods in a commercial sound effect management system.
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Paper Nr: 320
Title:

A VIDEO TRANSCODING SCHEME FOR E-LEARNING MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Pedro Assuncao and Nuno Santos

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a segmentation based transcoding scheme for adapting MPEG-2 e-learning visual contents to heterogeneous environments. This is achieved by converting MPEG-2 video into MPEG-4 video objects with arbitrary shape and different semantic value in e-learning context. The transcoding scheme is based on a hybrid segmentation method, which employs both compressed and pixel domain techniques, for extraction of two video objects from MPEG-2 streams. The objective is two-fold: i) to enable individual object coding and manipulation; ii) to increase the scene coding efficiency. The results show that our hybrid segmentation method is capable of identifying the video objects of interest with good accuracy. Moreover, the transcoding efficiency of the proposed scheme is better than straightforward conversion from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4.
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Paper Nr: 351
Title:

LOSS CONTROL THROUGH THE COMBINATION OF BUFFER MANAGEMENT AND PACKET SCHEDULING

Authors:

Yan Bai and Mabo R. Ito

Abstract: Conventional Quality of Service (QoS) control techniques are designed for achieving network-level QoS objectives. Due to the large differences between network-level and application-level QoS properties, these techniques cannot provide desirable QoS for video users. Previous work has been conducted to design a packet scheduling approach where application requirements and network-level QoS objectives are addressed simultaneously. In this paper, the packet scheduling approach is integrated with a buffer management technique for increasing the numbers of video users with QoS satisfaction. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated through simulations.
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Paper Nr: 354
Title:

MOVING OBJECTS SEGMENTATION USING BOUNDARY

Authors:

Ho S. Lee and Jun Ki Kim

Abstract: Moving object boundary is very important for moving object segmentation. We extract the moving object boundary from the moving object edge. But the object boundary shows broken boundary and we use a boundary linking to link the broken boundary. The boundary linking algorithm forms a quadrant around the terminating pixel in the broken boundary and searches forward other terminating pixel to link within a radius. The linking algorithm guarantees shortest distance linking. We register the background from image sequence. We construct two object masks, one from boundary linking and the other from the background, and use these two complementary object masks for moving object segmentation. We also filter out the moving cast shadow using gradient operator. The major characteristics of the proposed algorithms are accurate moving object segmentation, multiple moving objects segmentation, and the segmentation of an object which has holes in its region using these two object masks. We experiment the algorithms using the standard MPEG-4 test sequences and real video sequence. The proposed algorithms are very efficient and can process QCIF image more than 48 fps and CIF image more than 19 fps in a 2GHz Pentium-IV computer.
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Short Papers
Paper Nr: 95
Title:

DISCRETE SPEECH RECOGNITION USING A HAUSDORFF BASED METRIC - An automatic word-based speech recognition approach

Authors:

Tudor Barbu

Abstract: In this work we provide an automatic speaker-independent word-based discrete speech recognition approach. Our proposed method consist of several processing levels. First, an word-based audio segmentation is performed, then a feature extraction is applied on the obtained segments. The speech feature vectors are computed using a delta delta mel cepstral vocal sound analysis. Then, a minimum distance supervised classifier is proposed. Because of the different dimensions of the speech feature vectors, we create a Hausdorff-based nonlinear metric to measure the distance between them.
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Paper Nr: 168
Title:

ONLINE SMOOTHING OF VBR VIDEO STREAMS IN SYSTEMS WITH VARIABLE AVAILABLE BANDWIDTH

Authors:

Domenico Striccoli, Antonio De Gioia and Pietro Camarda

Abstract: Compressed multimedia transmission is assuming a growing importance in the telecommunication world. However, the high data rate variability of compressed video over multiple time scales makes an efficient bandwidth resource utilization difficult to obtain. Smoothing techniques is one of the approaches exploited to face this problem. Various smoothing algorithms have been proposed, that reduce the peak rate and high rate variability of video streams by efficiently prefetching video data to be transmitted over the network. However, all previous algorithms consider a constant available bandwidth. Such a constraint can be hardly verified in modern telecommunication networks. In this paper a novel online smoothing algorithm is proposed, that performs data scheduling by taking into account the residual available bandwidth, and at the same time minimizing rate variability changes. This algorithm can be fully exploited for online smoothing of video applications that want to tolerate very short playback delays. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective for online smoothing purposes in a link sharing environment.
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Paper Nr: 196
Title:

DIGITAL MUSIC ELECTRONIC COMMERCE – Addressing the super distribution model

Authors:

Carlos Serrão and Joaquim Marques

Abstract: Music is from far one of the most important types of media that is being exchanged in today's open networks. Users, pushed by a growing number of factors are exchanging more and more music files using popular P2P sharing technologies, such as Kazaa, e-Mule or Gnutella. If from one side this fact is important and positive, from the other side it is driving to a growth in the number of piracy situations, related to the violation of the authors copyright. Super distribution is from far the most popular electronic business model on the Internet and the World Wide Web. This is especially true when digital formatted content, such as music, videos or even books are considered. What are the main reasons for these facts? - Because it works. This paper proposes an approach to address such IPR issues trough the usage of an open DRM architecture.
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Paper Nr: 198
Title:

AN INTEGRATED GLOBAL AND FUZZY REGIONAL APPROACH TO CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

Authors:

Xiaojun Qi and Yutao Han

Abstract: This paper proposes an effective and efficient approach to content-based image retrieval by integrating global visual features and fuzzy region-based color and texture features. The Cauchy function is utilized to fuzzify each independent regional color and texture feature for addressing the issues associated with the color/texture inaccuracies and segmentation uncertainties. The overall similarity measure is computed as a weighted combination between global and regional similarity measures incorporating all features. Our proposed approach demonstrates a promising performance on an image database of 1000 general-purpose images from COREL, as compared with some variants of the proposed method and some peer systems in the literature.
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Paper Nr: 215
Title:

REAL-TIME AUDIO CAPTURE, COMPRESSION & STREAMING SERVICE ON A PDA

Authors:

Francisco Suarez and C. Garcia

Abstract: This paper shows how a PDA (Personal Digital Assstant)can be converted into an audio source within a private network or the web, providing capture, compression and streaming of audio as a real-time mobile service. Once the sound around the PDA has been captured and compressed to mp3 format, the service allows it to be broadcast to a Streaming Server. Once the audio reaches the Streaming Server, anyone with a network connection is able to receive and play it. The service provides different configuration parameters to control audio quality and broadcasting performance. For audio quality, different bitrate and frecuency values can be chosen. For broadcasting performance, different packet-length values can also be chosen, and the bitrate mode can be automatically controlled. The paper also includes the performance tunning of the compressor and experimental results using both wired and wireless networks.
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Paper Nr: 244
Title:

AN ENHANCED SMOOTHING SCHEME FOR MPEG VIDEO STREAMS TRANSMISSION

Authors:

Joelson T. Vendramin and Keiko Veronica Ono Fonseca

Abstract: Compressed video transmission over UDP/IP-based networks leads some challenging studies. One of them refers to the problem of minimizing the burstiness of video compressed traffic as it leads to poor network bandwidth utilization. Video smoothing has been proposed as one solution to this problem. This paper presents a smoothing algorithm to reduce such burstiness. The algorithm can bring good results in terms of peak bandwidth reduction while keeps a simple implementation if compared to other smoothing schemes.
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Paper Nr: 341
Title:

IMPROVING ICA ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO PREDICTING STOCK RETURNS

Authors:

Juan M. Górriz Sáez, C. G. Puntonet and R. Martín-Clemente

Abstract: In this paper we improve a well known signal processing technique such as independent component analysis (ICA) or blind source separation applied to predicting multivariate financial such as portfolio of stock returns using the Vapnik-Chervonenkis theory. The key idea in ICA algorithms is to linearly map the input space series (stock returns) into a new space which contains statistically independent components. There´s a wide class of ICA algorithms however they usually fail due to their high convergence rates or their limited ability of local search, as the number of observed signals increases.
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Paper Nr: 356
Title:

AN APPROACH TO THE SEMANTIC MODELING OF AUDIO DATABASES

Authors:

Mustafa Sert and Buyurman Baykal

Abstract: The modeling of multimedia databases for multimedia information systems is a complicated task. The designer has to model the structure and the dynamic behavior of multimedia objects, as well as the interactions between them. In this paper, we present a data model for audio database applications in the context of MPEG-7. The model is based on the object-oriented paradigm and as well as low-level and high-level signal features, which are standardized within the MPEG-7 framework, thus enabling interoperability of data resources. The model consists of two parts: a structural model, which provides a structural view of raw audio data, and an interpretation model, which allows semantic labels to be associated with audio data. We make use of an object-oriented approach to capture the audio events and objects in our model. Compared to similar models, particular attention is paid to integration issues of the model with commercial database management systems. Temporal relations between audio objects and events are also considered in this study.
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